Careers of Chartered Accountants (CA)


For studying Chartered Accountant, one has to pass his or/ her minimum qualification of passing 10+2 with a good percentage. Without passing of this basic requirement, one cannot pursue, his or/ her further studies. Following are the requirements:

LevelSubjectsPassing Criterion
Common Proficiency Test (CPT)Paper 1 : Fundamentals OF Accounting

Paper 2 : Quantitative aptitude

Paper 3 A: Mercantile Law

Paper 3 B: General Economics

Paper 4 : General English

Paper 4 B: Business Communication

30% in each paper and 50% aggregate
Integrated Professional Competency Course (IPCC)Group I:

Paper 1 : Accounting

Paper 2 : Business Laws, Ethics and Communication

Paper 3 : Cost Accounting and Financial Management

Paper 4 : Taxation


Group II:

Paper 5 : Advanced Accounting

Paper 6 : Auditing and Assurance

Paper 7 : Information Technology and Strategic Management

40% in each paper

50% aggregate in each group

Or 50% aggregate in both groups if attempted simultaneously

CA Final ExaminationGroup I:

Paper 1 : Financial Reporting,

Paper 2 : Strategic Financial Management,

Paper 3 : Advanced Auditing and Professional Ethics,

Paper 4 : Corporate and Allied Laws,


Group II:

Paper 5 : Advanced Management Accounting,

Paper 6 : Information Systems Control and Audit,

Paper 7 : Direct Tax Laws

Paper 8 : Indirect Tax Laws.

3 year article-ship with certified Chartered Accountant

40% in each paper

50% aggregate in each group

Or 50% aggregate in both groups if attempted simultaneously


Main responsibility of Chartered Accountant is to prepare, examine or analyze accounting records, financial statements or other financial reports to assess accuracy, completeness and conformance to reporting and procedural standards. In the process he interacts at regular intervals with individual as well as boards of the companies making communication skills, one of the important skills apart from financial aptitude. Indian Chartered Accountant Association of India (ICAI) recognized this and has included relevant training in the course.

CA analyzes business operations, trends, costs, revenues, financial commitments and obligations, to project future revenues and expenses or to provide advice. He develops, maintains and analyzes budgets, prepares periodic reports that compare budgeted costs to actual costs. He may provide both internal and external auditing services for businesses or individuals.

CA computes taxes owed and prepare tax returns, ensuring compliance with payment, reporting or other tax requirements. He establishes tables of accounts and assigns entries to proper accounts. He develops implements, modifies, and documents record-keeping and accounting systems, making use of current computer technology. New software programs that assist CA in his work have made their work streamlined in more than one way.

He also advises clients in areas such as compensation, employee health care benefits, design of accounting or data processing systems or long-range tax or estate plans.

Associated Institutions

Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI)


A budding CA is paid anywhere between INR 4 Lakhs to INR 7 Lakhs to start with. With experience and exposure, pay-scale varies a lot.

If are confused about your right career path click here. You may also call us on +91 9545803300 to know how we can help you to choose your career.

Careers in hoteling and catering


For pursuing studies relating to catering one must pass the very basic criterion that is passing 10+2 from C.B.S.E or any of such equivalents.


The industry can be divided into two areas, commercial services and catering services. Under commercial come hotels- vast number of small ones, small number of large and or luxury ones, motels, clubs, pubs and restaurants. Catering services include what is traditionally called institutional management: the provision of meals in schools and colleges, hospitals, etc., as well as industry, local and central government, passenger transport. Contract caterers may work in either area. There is not necessarily any greater difference between jobs in commercial and in non profit making catering than there are individual jobs within each area. Catering skills are highly transferable and there is considerable overlap between the different sectors.

For senior hotel management, experience in food and drink services as well as in accommodation services is necessary; for non – residential catering, experience of accommodation services is not necessary. Much depends on the size of establishment and the level of service it provides. It is an industry in which it is still possible to start at the bottom and, with aptitude hard work and willingness to gain qualifications, reach the top and or start one’s own business. Senior managers in a fast food chain may, for example, work entirely at head office with visits to units where they meet customers; in industrial catering they may be responsible for a group of catering units, visiting individual managers and liaising with head office; or they may investigate latest ‘catering systems’.

Success in most management jobs depends largely on motivating others to do their jobs well, and , on efficient utilization of equipment and deployment of staff. On the other hand, large industrial and institutional catering concerns and some chain restaurants increasingly use systems catering or catering systems instead of letting the chef decide what is for dinner and then getting the staff to prepare the meal.


The hotel manager’s work varies enormously according to size and type of hotel. In large hotels, the general manager is coordinator and administrator, responsible for staff management, marketing and selling, financial control, provision of services, quality control, and customer care. Departmental managers are in charge of specialist services: reception, sales, food and bar services, housekeeping, banqueting etc.

The manager deals with correspondence, has daily meetings with departmental managers and may be in touch daily or weekly with head office. Although managers try to be around to talk to guests, most of their time is spent dealing with running the business side, making decisions based on information obtained from the accountant, personnel manager, sales manager, food and beverage manager etc.

Working hours are long and often busiest at weekends and during holidays. They must be able to switch from one task to another instantly, and change their daily routine when necessary – which often is.

Among manager’s most important tasks: creating and maintaining good staff relations as success depends entirely on the work done by others under their overall direction; giving the hotel the personality and the character which either the manager, or more often the owner, intends it to have; and being able to make a constantly changing clientele feel as though each of them mattered individually.

In small hotels the manager may have a staff of about 15 to 30 and instead of several departmental managers, possibly 1 general assistant.


This post varies according to the size and type of hotel. In small hotels, assistant managers help wherever help is needed most-in the kitchen, in the bar, in housekeeping. Although the work is extremely hard, it is the best possible experience – an essential complement to college training.

In large hotels, assistant managers may be the same as departmental managers. They may take turns at being ‘duty manager’ available to deal with any problem that occurs on a particular shift. Trainee managers may spend some time as assistants in departments before deciding to specialize.

There are many more prospects and types of catering. They are being stated as follows:-

  1. Receptionist / front office
  2. Housekeeper
  3. Hotel sales manager
  4. Restaurant manager
  5. Professional Cooks
  6. Freelance Cooks
  7. Food and Drink Service-‘Waiting’
  8. Fast Foods
  9. Pub Management
  10. Industrial and contract management
  11. School Catering Service
  12. Hospital Catering
  13. Transport Catering
  14. Accommodation and Catering Management

Associated Institutions

  1. Oberoi Centre Of Learning and Development , Delhi
  2. Institute of Hotel Management, Mumbai
  3. Welcomegroup Graduate, Manipal
  4. Institute of Hotel Management, Delhi
  5. Institute of Hotel Management, Bangalore
  6. Institute of Hotel Management, Chennai
  7. Institute of Hotel Management, kolkata
  8. Institute of Hotel Management, Ahmedabad
  9. Christ University, Bangalore


Payscale in this industry depends heavily on skills and experience. It may range from INR 2.20 Lakhs to INR 6 Lakhs.

*All data are indicative. Before taking any decision, please call us to verify latest data.

Career as a career counsellor

Many people (including us) love to discuss with many success aspirants on how to achieve success in profession. This profession requires the coach to develop understanding of most of the careers in particular country. Successful coach must be aware of educational courses, Institutes and trends in the career.


The very basic criterion for getting into career services is passing of 10+2 with a minimum of passing marks. Bachelor’s degree in psychology is just a beginning in the profession. Chances of success in this profession increase when the coach himself has worked in various fields.


The traditional role of careers adviser in career service is to help young people to make sound and realistic career choices and to implement those choices. This covers a wide range of activities from helping an unemployed school leaver find a job to helping a school to plan an on going programme to suit various age and ability groups.

Recent developments in education and training have broadened the scope of careers advisers’ work so that they have a more active role in, for example, helping to plan work related areas of the school curriculum and liaising with training organizations on the provision of appropriate training. In addition , work with adults has increased; a growing number of careers services throughout the country have become all – age guidance services , developing their work with adults who might be unemployed , looking for a change of career , or returning to education or work after a break.

Career advisers work closer with schools and further education colleges and their role is expanding. They plan and implement a programme of careers education and guidance which can span several age groups and decision points. Careers advisers also have a key role in promoting and establishing closer links between education and industry.

Described with example, they might arrange courses and conferences which bring teachers into industry, liaising with schools to programmes , assisting both sides in the evaluation of the exercise and helping teachers to relate what they have learned to the curriculum.

They visit employers, talking both to training and personnel officers about their needs and to people actually doing jobs about the nature, demands and satisfaction of their work. They contact colleges and other educational institutions to keep themselves informed about courses, entry-qualifications and employment prospects, and advise colleges on suitable courses to run for young people. Much of this work takes careers advisers out and about, but there is a certain amount of essential office based administrative work.

Good record-keeping is very important, and the information collected must be made accessible to colleagues and clients. Often this involves writing brief summaries or more detailed information sheets on, for example, a particular occupational area or topics like choosing a course. After a period of general experience careers advisers may specialize.

Career advisers work intensively with disaffected young people to help them stay in education or find suitable training or work. This has become an increasing focus of careers work. With additional training a careers adviser may become a personal adviser, coordinating the support required to meet an individual young person’s specific needs.


There are no such institutions for career work in India. It totally depends upon the past experience and communication skills.


There are no fixed pay-scale for any Career Counsellor.

If you are looking to solve doubts about your career, please click here.

Careers in Arts and Design

There is an increasing overlap with the media and information technology sectors in relation to the use of digital technology to produce and deliver creative content. This is noticeable in roles such as web design, animation and games design.


For pursuing studies related to Art and Design , one has to clear the basic qualification i.e. passing of 10+2 from C.B.S.E or any of its equivalent boards or degrees.


As the title is specified, it covers two distinct fields Art and Design, which is largely painting and sculpture and is not career in the usual sense while design, which could be called applied art: it covers design for industrial and commercial application and industrial engineering. The terminology can be confusing. For example: industrial design is sometimes also called product design and comes under the broader heading 3-dimmensional design, Similarly, graphic design, with all its sub categories – illustrations, typography, photography etc. is also called visual communication or communication design.

In the Art and Design degree the areas of specialization are:

  1. Fine Arts
  2. Graphic Design
  3. 3-Dimmensional design
  4. Textile / Fashion


An extremely small number of artists are talented enough to make a living by painting and sculpting alone. Anyone determined to paint or sculpt must have a private income, a second script to their bow, or be prepared for a precautionary existence. Commissions for murals and sculptures for public building are extremely rare. The majority of painters and sculptors also teach, and for that they need art teacher training. Others combine fine arts with design in overlapping areas, for example studio – based craft, or such graphics specializations as a book illustration or advertising. A few artists do picture restoring or copying, but again there are few openings.


The function of the designer, who is broadly, a specialist combining artistic talent and training with sufficient technical and business knowledge to appreciate the requirements of an industry, is still evolving. Design careers tend not to be structured, although the last 20 years have shown that there are certain employment patterns that new entrants can aspire to. Many designers start as assistants and work first in the area of specialization in which they are trained. Later with experience and evolving interest, they can switch specializations. Recent courses started in India have reduced this long process and brought much more structured approach to the field, especially in terms of skill impartment to young designers and specific courses. Still, many industrial employers are not yet used to working with designers; the contribution the designer is expected to make varies from one job to another.

Usually, the visual appearance of the product is the most important aspect of the designer’s brief. Though the designer’s work varies from one field of designer to another, the end – product always has to fulfill at least 3 demands: it must look up to date, perform its function adequately, and be economically produced so that it is profitable. Designers must fully understand the purpose of the product they are designing and its marketing and manufacturing problems. They must know the limitations and potential of materials and machines available for production.


This is concerned with illustration, photography and logo design. It ranges from the design of books, book jackets, all kinds of advertisements, to the visually corporate identity symbol of organizations, i.e. presenting the image of that organization in visual, instant impact making terms. It also includes ‘visual aids’ for industrial and education application. This is an expanding area; instruction and/or information are put over in non-verbal language, with symbols taking the place of words. Symbols are used as teaching aids in industrial training; as user instructions in drug and textile labeling; as warning or information signs on machinery.

Visual communication also includes TV graphics: captions, programme titles, all non-verbal TV presentations of information, such as election results, trade figure trends etc. As far as newspapers are concerned it includes packaging, publicity, and advertising; stamp and letter head design. There is also some scope in the greeting card trade and in catalogue illustration. Much of this is considered hackwork by creative artists.

Now a day, there are few openings in general book and magazine illustration and design, but there is considerable scope in technical and medical graphics, which require meticulous accuracy rather than creative imagination.


3-Dimensional design is basically divided into product design and interior design.

So they are being described as follows.


This covers the design of all kinds of consumer goods and of machine tools, mechanical equipment, cars as well as pottery, furniture, etc. There is pressure on manufacturing industry to pay more attention to design than it has in the past. Many engineers and manufacturers still believe that with a bit more design training, engineers can cope up with aesthetics and ergonomics. The proportion of product input and engineering input varies from product to product. In new emerging trend Product Designers need such extensive knowledge of relevant engineering and manufacturing processes that they tend to stay within a particular manufacturing area.

Designers and engineers talk about a spectrum, for instance, in the manufacturing of a plastic cup the engineering input is very small, the design input large; at the other end of the spectrum is a gas turbine, where the design input may be confined to the lettering of the instructions and the colour.


Interior designers work in specialized or general design consultant’s studios, large stores, for a group of hotels or supermarkets, in private practice or local authority architects’ office. A considerable knowledge of architecture is required in order to know how to divert drains, move walls safely, or enlarge a shop window satisfactorily. The job of the interior designer, besides being responsible for such things as the management of contracts, is to specify the nature of an interior – how it is made, built and finished – as well as selecting the finishes and fixtures and fittings.

Planning interiors for a hotel, shop, aircraft etc. needs research before designing starts. Beginners often spend all their time on fact finding: the number of assistants required in a new shop, the kind of materials suitable and safe for furnishing a plane.


It combines some of the work of interior and set designer with model making and graphic design. Exhibition design is usually done by specialist firms. Exhibitions are often rush jobs , and designers may help put up stands and work through the night before opening.

Closely allied to exhibition design, but can be specialization on its own. The essence of window and ‘point of sale’ design is communication: the display designer must present the store’s or shop’s image, attract attention and persuade the passer by to buy. The window display can consist of merely putting a few goods in the window or a show case, or it can be a highly sophisticated exercise in marketing, using specially designed models and specially chosen merchandise to convey a ‘ theme ‘ and marketing policy.


Textile design includes printed and woven textiles, carpets, and other floor covering, wallpaper and plastic surface coverings and decoration. There are few openings in manufacturing firms. One of the difficulties is that thorough knowledge of manufacturing methods is essential, but it is difficult to get a job with suitable firms.



  • Sir J.J. School of Arts, Mumbai
  • Loyola college, Chennai
  • Stephen’s College, Delhi
  • Xavier’s College, Mumbai
  • Miranda House, Delhi
  • Christ University, Bangalore
  • Madras College, Chennai
  • Hindu College, Delhi
  • Fergusson College, Pune
  • Stella Maria’s College, Chennai


  • National Institute Design, Ahmedabad
  • National Institute of Fashion Design
  • Pearl Academy of Fashion
  • Industrial Design Centre, IIT Bombay
  • IDDC, IIT Delhi
  • Design Program, IIT Kanpur
  • Department of Deisgn, IIT Guwahati
  • MIT Institute of Design


Freshers get an average salary of about INR 3.5 Lakhs per year*. Experience strongly influences pay for this type of jobs.

*Salary is indicative from our survey. It should not be used as any specific standard in industry. It also may vary on case to case basis.

At Career Care we help you to find you right career through our Career Counselling services. These services include rigorous testing and counselling sessions.

Professions related to animals

If you love animals, enjoy working with them, but you aren’t sure what exactly you want to do with them…or what you can do with them? There are many ways in which you can combine your interest in animals with a paying job. There are broad range of jobs which we discuss over here.


Students passed 10+2 from science background are only eligible to pursue further studies in veterinary surgeon. The student must have the basic science combination i.e. physics, biology, chemistry which is rather called as Bio-Science.



Some veterinary practices deal mainly or exclusively (except in cases of emergency) with small or ‘companion’ animals; others deals with farm animals or horses; some are mixed practices, but even here veterinary surgeons are likely to develop particular areas of interest and expertise.

Veterinary Surgeons must provide 24 hours service, but most practices are organized so as to provide reasonable time off and holidays. Veterinary surgeons treat animals both in their surgeries and at their owner’s premises.

It is important for them to be able to communicate effectively with animal’s owner. This means a different approach for pet owners, who have an emotional attachment to their companion animals and for farmers to whom their animals are an investment.

While committed to the welfare of an animal, their veterinary surgeon must allow a farmer to balance an expensive new treatment against an economic return. In farm animal practice, veterinary surgeons are concerned not just with treating individual animals but with advertising on the well-being and productivity of their entire stock.

District councils need veterinary surgeons to inspect the riding establishments, zoos, pet shops and dog breeding and boarding kennels which they license.

Newly qualified veterinary surgeons normally start as assistants in established practices, moving on to a more senior assistant-ship.

Farm practitioners may be local Veterinary inspectors for the department for environment. They handle food and rural Affairs, testing cattle for tuberculosis or brucellosis or carrying on inspection at cattle markets. Some practices carry out supervision of meat hygiene in abattoirs or poultry slaughter houses; others work at their licensed grey hound tracks.

Veterinary Council of India is concerned not with individual animals but with the ‘common herd’. Its responsibilities include; the control and eradication of notifiable disease; diagonistic and consultancy work on notifiable and non-notifiable disease; epidemiological studies. It also includes disease monitoring and surveillance; special investigations and surveys; public health liaison and human diseases related to animals.

Veterinary Nurse

Veterinary Nurses assist veterinary surgeons in their surgery and occasional on visits. They hold and pacify animals during examination and treatment; in the surgery they also sterilize and look after instruments. They collect and analyze specimens, prepare medicines, take out strings and stitches, clean out cages and clear up after operations.

They may also assist in the reception of patients.

They work mainly in ‘small animal’ practices, i.e. those dealing with domestic animals, and for the RSPCA and other animal welfare and research organizations. The hours are usually long and irregular. Animals have to be cared for at weekends, which may mean going to work on Saturday and Sunday, perhaps just to feed them.

Horse Care-takers

Looking after horses nearly always means hard physical work that has to be carried out daily in all weathers. Hours tend to be long especially in summer and most people work a 6-day week. Most new entrants have had experience of working as unpaid helpers or have their own pony/horse while at school, so they know what is involved.

Staff may live in or out, but grooms and stable managers usually live on the premises because of the early-morning start.


They teach children and adults, both in private lessons and in classes, and accompany riders out on ‘hacks’. Classes may be held early in the morning or late in the evening, to suit pupils coming before or after work. Some instructors work for one establishment full time; others work freelance or part time.

Dog training is a tremendously rewarding career. One should remember first of all that, for the most part, training is a “service” profession and that one is usually working with people who happen to have dogs. In other words, you are working with animals but you are primarily working with people.

There could be many private Institutions giving instructions for this profession.


  1. Centre for advanced studies in pathology ,Kerala Agricultural University.
  2. Shri lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha ,New Delhi.
  3. Bihar Veterinary College ,Patna.
  4. All India Institute of Hygiene and public health ,Kolkata ,West Bengal.
  5. Department of agriculture Research and Education ,Central Agriculture University , Imphal , Manipur.
  6. College of animal sciences ,CCS Haryana Agriculture University ,Hisar ,Haryana.
  7. Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics , Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science university ,Ludhiana ,Punjab.
  8. Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding ,West Bengal university of Animal and Fishery Science.
  9. Department of Animal Nutrition ,chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University , Palampur.
  10. Department of animal Nutrition Navasari Agricultural University, Gujrat.

(There are many others in India)


At an average the pay scale for Veterinary professional, who is working in the same field for 1-4 YEARS INR 4.7 Lakhs per annum is the salary. Many choose to work as a Consultant and hence income may vary a lot depending individual skills.

Architecture as career

Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.


  1. 10+2 with a minimum passing percentage from any stream with mathematics as a compulsory subject
  2. Qualification in corresponding Architectural Entrance Exams
    1. National Aptitude test for Architecture (NATA)
    2. Joint Entrance Exam (JEE – Paper 2)
    3. Maharashtra Common Entrance test (MAH-AR-CAT)


Architecture is a multi discipline profession requiring a combination of artistic, technological and sociological expertise. The challenge of architecture is to produce, within a given budget, an aesthetically pleasing design which will stand up to wear and tear and is the kind of building in which people will want to live or work.

Architects must fully understand traditional and new building methods and material and appreciate their potential and limitations. They must also understand and be interested in contemporary society and changing lifestyles, the community’s expectations and needs and social problems which may lead to loneliness, mugging and vandalism. They need to question householders, office workers, teachers, hospital staff, managers, and social workers etc to come up with a design for a building that is ‘user’ friendly. This, together with strict financial constraints, makes architecture today a more demanding discipline than it has ever been.

Typical tasks range from converting houses into flats to designing hospitals, retirement homes or factory. Architects receive instructions from their clients or employers on the type, function, capacity, and rough cost of the building required. Then they do their research – and at that stage they may question some assumptions on which the client based the brief. When the type of the building has finally been decided upon, the design work begins. This starts with producing, perhaps jointly with colleagues, a sketch scheme of the floor plans, the elevations, and perspective drawings. Several designs must be produced before one is finally approved.

The next stage is to prepare contract documents which will include detailed drawings and specifications; estimates of cost; and applications for necessary planning consent from the local authority. At this stage especially if the scheme is a big one, consulting engineers and quality surveyors may be appointed.

When the contract for the work has been awarded to a building contactors, and for inspecting the work in progress, architects are responsible for overall monitoring of the site. This involves regular visits to the building site, issuing instructions to the contractor’s agent or foreman and discussing any problem that might arise.

The architect is also normally responsible for the choice or design of fittings and the interior design of the buildings. Work of Architects in commercial concern is confined to that organization’s particular type of building e.g. hotels and restaurants for a large catering organization; shops for a retail chain.

Following can be top careers:

  • Urban Design & Planning
  • Theatre & Exhibition Design
  • Environmental Architecture
  • Landscape & Interior Design
  • Set Design -Film


  • JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY, Jadavpur , Kolkata.
  • TVB SCHOOL OF HABITAT STUDIES, Vasant Kunj , New Delhi.
  • IIT KHARAGPUR, Kharagpur.
  • IIT ROORKEE, Roorkee.


A Design Architect earns an average salary of INR 3.8 per year. Experience strongly influences pay for this job. The highest paying skills associated with this job are Autodesk 3ds Max and PowerPoint. Most people with this job move on to other positions after 20 years in this field.

*Figures are indicative. Do not use it for any decision.

If you want to know, how can we help you in choosing career visit here.

Career in Actuarial Sciences

An actuary is nothing but a business professional which basically deals with the measurement and management of risk and uncertainty .The name of the corresponding profession is called as actuarial science. The risks caused can affect both sides of the balance sheet and require asset management, liability management and valuation skills. Actuaries provide a proper assessment of financial security system.


Students who wish to pursue actuarial science must be more than 18 years. He / She should have completed any one of the following educational qualifications or standards as follows:-

  • Passed 10+2(H.S.C) or any equivalent with 85% in mathematics / statistics
  • Any Engineer / CA / CS / MBA (FINANCE) / MCA

Fully qualified members of following professional bodies such as:-

  • Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI)
  • Institute of Cost Accountants of India (ICWAI)
  • The Institute of Financial Analyst of India (IFAI)
  • The Insurance Institute of India (III), passing with subjects 81- Mathematical basis of insurance and 82-Statistics


The work of an Actuary is vast.

Actuaries use the theory of profitability and the theory of compound interest together. They use statistical techniques to highlight and solve financial problems. Actuaries suggest appropriate courses of action and to predict the financial implications of such actions. Their works has a strong mathematical bias and is essential desk-work performed in a variety of settings.

Some 50% of actuaries work for insurance and pension funds. They investigate on such matters as relative life expectancy of various groups in the population, and assessing the effects of life styles and characteristics on premiums and policies and investment. In other insurance branches- accident, fire, motor- actuaries assess risks and pin – point variables in the light of changing conditions and life styles and advise on reserves necessary to cover long term liabilities.

In government departments actuaries advise on public service pensions and insurance schemes. Though they are concerned with various aspects of people’s lives and welfare, actuaries do not usually have much contact with people outside their own office.

About 30% of actuaries work in consultancy. Much of their work involves advising clients, usually about pension funds. They also advise insurance companies too small to have their own actuarial department, or give specialist advice to large insurance companies. There are also openings on merchant banks, the stock exchange and other financial institutions, as well as some limited opportunities in industry and commerce. This is such a type of work which is totally a desk-work.

Actuaries solve complicated problems because it’s a work of a good mathematician. A student perusing Actuarial science should have a strong base of mathematics. It improves the ability to interpret and express in clear English results of mathematical and statistical analysis. They have to keep up with developments, especially relevant legislation and data processing application.


  • BISHOP HEBER COLLEGE, Trichinappalli.


Payment scale of actuarial science is high. The basic salary varies from about INR 3 Lakhs to INR 9 Lakhs per annum; moreover the bonus that is received each year is around INR 2 Lakhs per annum.

*These are approximate figures from our survey and should not be used as benchmark in any scenario.

Advertising Career

The very basic definition of advertising is of promoting a group of items or any goods which will have an end result which will lead to selling of that good or services.

Advertising is done by a group or by an individual, they are called as advertisers. Many advertisers incorporate advertising into marketing. Among them (advertisers), brand managers are responsible for the marketing policy for a product, including its advertising. Relatively few have their own advertising departments, which vary in size. If manufacturer creates and places all the advertising directly, the department may be such like small agency.

There are various departments for advertising. For example, retailers’ advertisement departments may deal with store and window displays, exhibition, fashion shows, promotions, and public relations. The Advertising departments are useful grounds, giving experience in arrange of works.


The very Basic requirement that one must fulfill to become an advertiser is to pass 10+2 with minimum of 50% marks from H.S.C or any of its equivalent.

Other requirements that one must attain to become an Advertiser, are as follows:-

Graduation is mandatory under any UGC ranked and AICTE approved university in India.

MBA in marketing can give a competitive edge to the students in comparison to the students who are only graduates.


It is commonly said that advertising is nothing but a technique of promotion or promoting some good or service. So it’s not only possible for advertisers to promote it as they want.

These are basically done through some of the mediums.  Here MEDIA becomes the best medium for promotion of goods and services. The advertising departments of media owners are responsible for selling space or air time to advertisers. This can be in both the ways. Direct or through agencies.

The research section provides information about readers or viewers. It helps advertisers to pin- point target groups.

The promotions section may have its own creative department, which works mainly in three areas. These three areas include projecting the medium to advertisers, to distributors and to retailers on behalf of advertisers.

Sales representatives are responsible for selling advertisement space or air time; this may include telephone selling, trying to get classified advertisements.

Media managers are responsible for ensuring that advertisements comply with the code of advertising practice. This may involve checking copy claims and possibly asking for changes to be made before accepting copy. Considerably more patience is required for doing this type of jobs.

Now days without advertising, business is impossible, and it becomes an important part for any company as well as for any goods and services to be sold.

In India there are huge job opportunities or job scopes for a good advertiser. This is because; the entire market depends upon marketing. In advertising, pre entry training is not essential but, it is very helpful. The larger agencies tend to run in-service training schemes, sometimes supplemented by external courses. The Institute of Practitioners in Advertising runs a phased program of training courses designed to cater for the training needs of executives employed at IPA member agencies at each stage of their career.

Some advertising agencies take several graduates each year.

Associated institutes for learning Advertising and Mass Media:

  • CRAFT: Centre for Research in Art of Film and Television, Delhi.
  • Advertising Club Care Centre, Chennai.
  • Centre of Image Management, Noida.
  • Empire institute of advertising and communication CSKM, New Delhi.
  • Guru Jambheshwar University, Haryana.
  • Indian Institute of Mass Communication, JNU, New Delhi.
  • Mudra Institute of Communications, Shela, Ahmadabad.
  • Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, Vile Parle (west) Mumbai.
  • Somaiya College of arts, Chow patty, Mumbai.
  • Sophia College, Bhulabhai Desai Road, Mumbai.


The Marketing Manager secures annual salary of about INR 6 Lakhs. In the hierarchy there is the senior marketing manager who holds a better designation and a better pay scale as well which can reach up to approximately INR 10 to 12 Lakhs. Communication is a key factor in marketing, thus the marketing communication manager plays an important role in running the marketing process without any hindrances and can expect a salary of around INR 8 Lakhs. The senior copywriter also gets a salary of around INR 5 Lakhs.

(Data is approximate and should not be taken as benchmark at on any level. It only holds an approximate introduction for the novices.)

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Vocabulary: Discrete VS Discreet

Discreet implies the showing of reserve and prudence in one’s behavior or speech.

Discrete means something quite different: “distinct, separate and unrelated.”


It originates from Latin word – Discretus (Separated)

Discrete mainly means the expression of something being very Different/Unique and separated.

Used as Verb

To express the meaning of difference

“For making the lesson more easy, they discrete them into various segments”

Used as Adjective

To express the uniqueness of the object

“His ideas were always discrete, regardless of any situation”


It originates from Middle English Discret

Discreet is the word used to express the extreme inclination or support of anything or anybody towards anyone or anything.

Used as Adjective

It is used to indicate if judicious in one’s conduct or speech

“The French language was to be enriched by a development of its internal resources and by discreet borrowing from the Latin and Greek.”


When you differentiate between two things then you use discrete to state the differentiation of both the things

But, when you are reserved or judicious for some person or something, you shall be using discreet to express your reserved attitude towards the person or the things.

RETROSPECT your past, INTROSPECT yourself & SPECULATE a better future

Our state of mind reflects our moods or attitude in life. Sometimes we feel happy and sometimes sad; recalling what we did and what could have happened? In order to annotate these situations, knowing appropriate words is very important. This post shall help you to materialize these words in the following paragraphs.


While looking back and contemplating the past — we sometimes find ourselves wishing that we had done some things differently. Though this word most commonly appears as a noun in the phrase “in retrospect,” it can also be used as a verb.

It’s Origin

The prefix retro- means “back,” and spec is a component of the words inspect, spectator, spectacles, and perspective, among others, all of which have to do with looking or seeing. So it makes sense that retrospect means to look back in time, or to remember

For Example: “To meditate is to retrospect ones deeds”


“to look inside,” and describes the act of thinking about your own actions or inner thoughts. When you examine what you do, say, think or feel and how it affects your life and the lives of others, that’s introspection.

It’s Origin

Intro means “within,” while spec is from the Latin for “look.” So you can tell that the word means the act of “looking within.”

It’s like searching inside in order to understand yourself — what some people mock as “navel gazing.”

For example: Nineteenth-century philosopher William Godwin once said, “The philosophy of the wisest man that ever existed is mainly derived from the act of introspection.”


When you speculate, you use what you know to make a prediction about an outcome,

It’s Origin

It is having a Latin origin, speculatus, meaning “to spy out, examine

For Example: After completing his graduation from a foreign university, Mohit Speculated a high paid and prestigious job.

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