Useful Vocabulary: Collocations in writing

A collocation is a sequence of words or terms that co-occur more often than would be expected by chance. Instead of going through technicality we are introducing few workable set of words which can be definitely used in Business English, GRE, TOEFL and IELTS.

Have

  1. have a drink

Usage: offer a drink (for free off course)

Example: “Let’s have drinks and try to see through our problems.”

  1. have a problem

Usage: use this collocation to introduce the problem

Example: “Do you have a problem with that?”; “Just let me know if you have any problem”; “Sir, I am having a problem with office timing”

Do

  1. do business

Usage: use this collocation to imply someone owns a particular business

Example: “We do business in textiles.”, “What business do you do?”

  1. do the shopping

Usage: use this collocation to describe the process / habbit of shopping

Example: “He does his shopping only at big malls as he is brand conscious.”

Make

  1. make money

Usage: gain

Example: “You must enter new markets now to make money.” “Making money now a days is not matter of hard work.”

  1. Make progress

Usage: to move forward from current state in business or other affairs

Example: “Your child is making significant progress.” “Our project is not making progress, in spite of recent additions to the team.”

  1. Make an effort

Usage: Attempt

Example: “Make It doesn’t matter to me one way or another, but I wish you would at least make an effort at seeing his side of it.”

Take

  1. Take a chance

Usage: try luck at

Example: “It is very obvious that Government may fail in this project, but at least they must take a chance. Who knows, they may succeed?”

  1. Take a look

Usage: to look with attention

Example: “I would be fortunate, if you take a look at my new blog.”, “Did you take look at yourself, before making such a bold statement?”

General

  1. Incredible performance/tale/wealth/talent etc.

Usage: used to describe something, which is beyond expectations

Example: “Our company has, once again, delivered incredible performance.”, “In spite of incredible talent, India is lacking innovation.”, “For incredible performance in GRE, you must work on your vocabulary.”

  1. Stringent action/steps/guidelines/measures/punishment etc.

Usage: used to state actions/steps…., which are strict and must be followed without doubt

Example: “India must take stringent actions against countries sponsoring terrorism.”, “To score better in IELTS, one must follow stringent guidelines.”

  1. Unwanted consequences

Usage: used to describe results which are not expected or considered

Example: “Fair competition and open market are greatest outcomes of Capitalism but empowerment of wealthy is unwanted consequence.”

  1. Dire consequences

Usage: used to describe which are not only unexpected but ghastly and detrimental

Example: “If you do not comply with the tyrant King, your actions may lead to dire consequence”

  1. Inevitable consequence

Usage: used to describe results which are obvious and follow naturally

Example: “Inevitable consequence of ignoring basic Mathematical formulae is low scores in Quantitative section on you GRE.”

  1. Utter failure

Usage: used to describe results/attempts which end up in absolute failure even without any partial positive outcome

Example: “Attempting speaking section of TOEFL without even practicing home ends up in utter failure.”

  1. Sheer ignorance

Usage: used to describe unqualified or complete lack of knowledge

Example: “John was surprised by the format of speaking section on TOEFL. He blamed his sheer ignorance on tutor.”

  1. Grave negligence

Usage: used to describe apathy/ inattention towards something

Example: “The committee remarked his grave negligence, and attributed the ghastly accident to his attitude.”

  1. Adequate resources

Usage: used to describe resources at disposal to solve an issue is good enough

Example: “If you want to perform better on GRE, senior’s notes are not adequate resources.”

  1. Appropriate action/solution

Usage: used to describe suitable action/ solution

Example: “Owing to recent incidence in India, Prime Minister must take appropriate actions.”

  1. Workable solution

Usage: used to describe a feasible fixture/ solution for the task at hand

Example: “As far as pollution is concerned, reducing carbon emission is the only workable solution.”

Keep visiting us for more such collocations. Your suggestions are more than useful for us.

Best Practices in Business Writing

Our last blog, “Organization in Writing” was very well received. Thanks for your responses. In this blog we hope to explain few things about the writing process itself.

Writing process consists of four main stages as follows

  1. Data collection
  2. Pre-writing
  3. Writing
  4. Editing

Data collection

In this age of Information, data is single most valued commodity. We are always exposed to information. However, collecting, storing and using right information at appropriate stages is the key to effective writing. In this stage, you focus entirely on data collection, which you may find useful later. Hence, you are constantly in this stage, keeping your eyes and ears open for information on interesting topics. Following can be very effective sources:

  1. Books
  2. News
  3. Blogs
  4. Social Media
  5. Radio
  6. Discussions/ Meetings
  7. Interviews

Pre-writing

Pre-writing stage comes as and when you decide to pen down your thoughts on paper. It starts with brainstorming on the topic. Brainstorming is a quick way to generate a lot of ideas on a subject. The purpose is to make a list of as many ideas as possible without worrying about how you will use them. Your brainstorming diagram may include words, phrases, sentences or even questions.

To brainstorm, follow these steps:

  1. Begin by writing a topic in a rectangular box.
  2. Write down as many ideas about the topic as you can in 5 minutes.
  3. Add more items to your list by answering the questions what, how, when, where, why and who.
  4. Group similar ideas.
  5. Understand relations like cause-effect, consequences, lists, examples, advantages / disadvantages etc. between the ideas and mark them.
  6. Think of relevant examples especially if you are writing an essay.
  7. Check for relevancy with audience, subject boundaries and occasion.

bUSINESS WritngAbove image shows brainstorming diagram.

Writing

Outcome of previous activity acts as guideline at this stage. From childhood, an idea of havinga great start to the essay is imbibed in your mind. Let us tell you good news; it is alright to have an average start. Focus on the writing all considered points first. During editing stage you may revise your introduction. We will discuss “Parts of writing” in next week.

Write relentlessly without stopping. Frequent checking and stopping in between for corrections, breaks the flow. Also, if you stop in between, your mind might be diverted to related issues. You lose focus, which in turn results in loss of concentration. Repeated interruptions make you blind to your own mistakes, which lead to erroneous writing and ultimately frustration.

While writing, guidelines given in our previous blog “Organization in writing” can be very useful. You may also choose to use following guidelines,

  1. Start writing relentlessly.
  2. Do not waste time correcting yourself at this stage. You have next stage to correct yourself.
  3. Remember to use following orders while writing to sound more logical
  4. Order of Organization by Grouping
  5. Organization by Time
  6. Organization by Order of Importance
  7. Organization by Space

Editing

At the end of previous stage you have yourself, few ideas jotted down on your computer screen. Now, start proof-reading your written piece.

  1. While reading, look for logical sense. Ask yourself,
    1. Did I cover all points?
    2. Did I write them in logical fashion?
    3. Did I use appropriate order?
  2. Next, look for clarity of concepts. Many people like to believe that the more complex they write, better they sound. Please make sure one sentence is used for one idea. Don’t write sentences having multiple ideas. They only confuse your readers.
  3. Once this part is taken care of, we advise you to look for grammatical mistakes and correct them. Check for consistency of tenses, dates, persons and subject-verb confirmation.

We hope this blog helps to organize your writing better. These tips are valid for Business Writing, GRE, IELTS and TOEFL. You may visit us here, to know more about Business English course.

Organization in Writing

Writing is a type of communication, usually with standard structure and style. It addresses the needs of audiences and has prose and lists for a particular area that concerns business. Writing is very important in all phases of one’s life, as it creates an image of writer in the reader’s mind. A person with excellent writing skills unknowingly earns respect of his peers and looked upon as a sincere employee by the seniors. Now many may complain that writing is a tedious task. Yes writing is difficult, but good news is that it can be learnt and practiced.

Through series of blogs, we are going to take a short course in written communication.

One of the most important parts of writing is organization of the ideas. Proper organization of the ideas help, people paint a mental picture of written communication. It helps in understanding and eventually evaluating an idea. Ideas can be organized based on many criteria. Following are few important ones

  1. Organization by Grouping
  2. Organization by Time
  3. Organization by Order of Importance
  4. Organization by Space

Organization by Grouping

Ideas in writing can be organized by grouping them in relevant groups. Such grouping helps reader paint a mental picture of what is being described about. Clearer the list of groups, better is the mental picture. For instance, while describing countries, reader would be disturbed to see any cities mentioned in same line. To explain the point further, look at following paragraph.

For example

It is interesting to visit foreign countries. You can meet new people. You can eat different kinds of food. It is expensive. You can see the way other people live.

In the above paragraph, all ideas are relevant with main idea, ‘It is interesting to visit foreign countries’ except the idea that ‘It is expensive’ which in fact is a counterpoint of the main idea.

Organization by Time

Time sequence or chronology explains an important role in writing or reporting events. It gives a factual account of incidents in a way which can be easily understood and examined.

For example

I had a terrible Sunday. First I woke up an hour late because my alarm clock in mobile failed as mobile was discharged. Then, I was in such a hurry that I burned my hand when I was making breakfast. After breakfast, I rushed for the Soccer practice. I really feel that everyone should play soccer in life. As I reached the bus stop, I realized, I had forgotten my wallet at my desk. I literally sprinted back home and collected the wallet. I had to wait for 20 minutes as bus frequency on Sunday is comparatively rare. By the time I reached the ground, my friends were almost half way through the practice. My coach was angry. After practice, on my way back, I first went to supermarket to buy groceries and then to laundry to pick up my clothes.

As can be seen while, reading above paragraph, the sentence, ‘I really feel that everyone should play soccer in life’ distracts the attention. Other sentences build a nice account of unfortunate Sunday of the author.

Signal Words

First

Second

Then

Next

Before

After

As

Later

finally

Organization by order of importance

It is very important to recognize order of importance while discussing events, logical ideas, consequence, lists etc. This arrangement allows reader to rate the important points at start.

For example

There are many ways to learn a new language. The best way is to talk with native speakers. One way is to spend a lot of time watching television and listening to the radio. Another way is to take classes at a language school or university.

As can be seen, if ways of learning languages are arranged in order of importance, it is very easy to recognize best practices to learn a new language.

Signal Words

First of all

Second

For one thing

The next + noun

Also

In addition

Another + noun

Moreover

Most important + noun

Organization by Space

When you describe space, you use space order to explain where things are located. The easiest way to do this is to choose starting point. Then you describe where things are located with respect to previously described thing.

For example

My bedroom is a special place. Like most rooms, it is a rectangle. When you walk in the door, the first thing you notice is the large window on the back wall. It has a beautiful view of the garden.

Signal Words

On

Besides

In front of

In corner

Above

Next to

Both sides

Left hand

Below

We hope this blog helps to organize your writing better. These tips are valid for Business Writing, GRE, IELTS and TOEFL. You may visit us here, to know more about Business English course.

Know the Nouns

Most of the readers shall describe noun as “a place, a person or a thing”. This is not a complete explanation of NOUN. A noun is not necessarily always a physical substance; it can be of any intangible form as well. For example: Feeling of happiness or the artistic beauty of a painting.

Nouns have various categories, they are:

  1. Count Nouns
  2. Uncounted Nouns
  3. Proper Nouns
  4. Common Nouns
  5. Collective Nouns
  6. Concrete Nouns
  7. Abstract Nouns

COUNT NOUNS

Count nouns are the types of nouns that express the place, person or thing either in a singular or more than a singular expression.

Count nouns have two forms:

Singular

Plural

Singular Nouns

Singular nouns are the types of nouns that express the singularity or being the 1 of any one place, any one person, or any one thing

Plural Nouns

Plural Nouns are the types of nouns that express the plurality or being more than one of any more than one place, any more than one person, or more than one thing.

For Example

A valley (it expresses a single place), a tree (it expresses a single thing), a

player (it expresses a single person)

For Example

A number of valleys (it expresses more than one place), a forest of trees (it expresses more than one trees)

Few rules of plural nouns are listed below:

  1. We usually add –s to make a plural noun:

For example – boy-s, girl-s, toy-s, tree-s etc.

  1. We add -es to nouns ending in –ss; -ch; -s; -sh; -x

For example- grass-es, church-es, gas-es, fish-es, ox-es etc.

  1. When a noun ends in a consonant and -y we make the plural in –ies

For example- baby=babies, fairy=fairies, cherry=cherries

  1. When a noun ends in a vowel and -y we simply add -s:

For example- momo=momos, eye=eyes, apple=apples

  1. Some nouns have uncertain plurals.

For example- mouse=mice, Goose=Geese

UNCOUNTED NOUNS-

We do not use uncounted nouns in the plural. Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot “count” them. For example, we cannot count “milk”. We can count “bottles of milk” or “liters of milk”, but we cannot count “milk” itself.

For example – We drank a lot of coffee

For example – That’s useful advice

Uncounted nouns often refer to:

SubstancesIron, table, chair, biscuit
Human feelings or qualitiesAnxiety, sadness, merry, happy
ActivitiesRun, sleep, talk, sneeze
Abstract ideas:Life, urge, death

Here are few examples of countable and uncountable nouns.

COUNTABLEUNCOUNTABLE
TableFurniture
PoemsRhythm
TreesForest
FactoryIndustry
DewRainfall

PROPER NOUNS –

A PROPER NOUN is a noun which usually refers to a singular or collection of entities. Some proper nouns occur in plural form, and then they refer to groups of entities considered as unique. Names of people, place and person are known as Proper Noun. We generally start the proper nouns with CAPITAL letters.

William Shakespeare, Richard, Pune etc

Proper nouns are not normally preceded by an article or other limiting modifier, as any or some. Nor are they usually pluralized. But the language allows for exceptions

COMMON NOUNS

According to Oxford – Common nouns are the nouns that can be preceded by an indefinite article and denotes any or all member of the class.

Let me simplify it to you.

Common nouns are the types of nouns which do not specify a person or any place or anything in particular but refers to it as in general aspect like for example, dog, city, humans etc. these are the common nouns.

COLLECTIVE NOUNS

According to Oxford – A noun, though singular refers to a group of things, or animals.

I hope that this definition is pretty simple

Now I would give you a list of collective nouns.

An army of soldiers

A herd of sheep

A dozen of Eggs

A pack of wolves

A bunch of sticks

A crowd of people

A club of lions

A group of dancers.

A team of players

CONCRETE NOUNS

Concrete nouns are those types of nouns which denote something tangible or material, such as a person or a place.

For Example – Machine, Tree, Jack etc

Pretty Simple ha? That’s what we do. We make it simpler for you to understand.

ABSTRACT NOUN

Abstract Nouns are the type of nouns which does not have a physical form that cannot be touched; it is a noun that denotes an idea, an emotion, feeling, quality or other abstract or intangible concepts.

For Example-

Happiness

Sadness

Anger, etc.

English Grammar: Future Perfect Continuous Tense

During our English speaking courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at Future perfect continuous tense and its applications in spoken English.

The Future perfect continuous expresses that the action shall start sometime in the future and shall continue in the future

Verb

In future perfect continuous tense the verb is generally used in its present participle form and it is supported by the auxiliary verb, “will have been”

Make a statement

A statement in Future perfect continuous tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

I, You, We, They

will have been

roasting

chicken

He, She, It

will have been

roasting

chicken

I, You , We, They

will

not have been

roasting

chicken

He, She, It

will

not have been

roasting

chicken

Structure for constructing statement in general can be:

Subject + will + have been+ Verb (present participle) + Object (positive statement)

Subject + will + no, not, never + have been + Verb (present participle) + Object (negative statement)

Ask a question

While forming interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. Following can be use of Future perfect continuous tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main Verb

Object

Will

you, we, they

have been

roasting

chicken?

Will

he, she, it

have been

roasting

chicken?

Will

you, we, they

not have been

roasting

chicken?

Will

he, she, it

not have been

roasting

chicken?

Will + subject + have been+ Verb (present participle) + Object (positive statement)

Will + subject + no, not, never + have been + Verb (present participle) + Object (negative statement)

Now there are few situations where the Future perfect continuous tense is used.

Duration of future happenings

Future perfect continuous tense tells us about the duration of any activity that happens in future

  • They will have been waiting for an hour before jack arrives.
  • Will you have been working when you will work with them?
  • Will you have been planning of staying here before your flat gets ready?

Cause of something that shall happen in future

It shows cause and effect relation of an activity.

  • He will have been working to make his family happy.
  • He will be soaked in sweat because he will have been walking back home.
  • He will have been drinking due to his loss.

English Grammar: Past Perfect Continuous Tense

During our Business English: speaking courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at past perfect continuous tense and its applications in spoken English.

Past perfect continuous is used to show the continuity of the activity in past, to talk about the things that had happened in the past over a period of time.

Verb

Here main verb is in –ing form and auxiliary verb is “had been”.

Make a statement

A statement in past perfect continuous tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

I, You, We, They

had

been

drinking

coffee

He, She, It

had

been

drinking

coffee

I, You , We, They

had

not been

drinking

coffee

He, She, It

had

not been

drinking

coffee

Structure for constructing a statement in general can be:

Subject + had + been + Main Verb -ing + Object (positive statement)

Subject + had+ no, not, never + been + Main Verb -ing + Object (negative statement)

Ask a question

While forming interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. Following can be use of past perfect continuous tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main VerbObject

Had

I, You, We, They

beendrinkingcoffee?

Had

He, She, It

beendrinkingcoffee?

Had

I, You, We, They

not beendrinkingcoffee?

Had

He, She, It

not beendrinkingcoffee?

Now there are few situations where the past perfect continuous tense is used.

Duration in the past

The main use of the Past Perfect Continuous is to express actions or situations that were in progress before some other actions or situations.

  • The workers had been working the whole day in double shifts.
  • The children had been playing in the garden when the snake was found.
  • The people of the United States had been revolting before independence.
  • Rupa had been baking the cake, before two days.

Showing Cause

This tense is used to show cause of an action or situation in the past.

He had been successful in his life because of his hard work and dedication.

  • They had been motivated for the work by the lectures.
  • She had been doing the work for running the family.
  • It had been digging the soil for hiding the bone.

 Keep us encouraging with your likes and shares.

English Grammar: Present Perfect Continuous Tense

During our English speaking courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at Present perfect continuous tense and its applications in spoken English.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense is mainly used to express as the activity that started in the past and is still continuing in the present and you can express the time from when the activity started.

Verb

In present perfect continuous tense the verb is expressed by adding -ing at the end and by using an auxiliary verb before the actual verb in the sentence.

Make a statement

A statement in Present perfect continuous tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

I, you, we, they

have been

drinking

coffee

He, she, it

has been

drinking

coffee

I, you , we, they

have

not been

drinking

coffee

He, she, it

has

not been

drinking

coffee

Structure for statement in general can be:

Subject + has/have + been + Verb –ing form + Object (positive statement)

Subject + has/have + no, not, never + been + Verb-ing form + Object (negative statement)

Ask a question

While forming interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. Following can be use of present perfect continuous tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main Verb

Object

Have

you, we, they

been

drinking

coffee?

Has

He, she, it

been

drinking

coffee?

Have

you, we, they

not been

drinking

coffee?

Have

He, she, it

not been

drinking

coffee ?

Has/have + been + Subject + Verb -ing form + Object (positive question)

Has/have + Subject + no, not, never + been + Verb -ing form + Object (negative question)

Now there are few situations where the present perfect continuous tense is used.

Time Duration

This tense is used to express the time duration of the activity.

  • He has been watching TV for 2 hours.
  • They have been working hard for the last month.
  • I have been jogging for past 1 hour.

Temporary Activity

Temporary activity going on and is tend to get over in a fixed period of time.

  • They have been living here for two days.
  • He has been going to classes daily.
  • I have been doing what I am told to do.

Thanks a lot. Please keep encouraging with your shares and likes

English Grammar: Future Perfect Tense

During our English speaking courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at Future perfect tense and its applications in spoken English.

The Future perfect tense indicates that an action will be completed (finished or perfected) at some point of time in the future.

Verb

In future perfect tense the verb is generally used in its past participle form and it is supported by the auxiliary verb, “will have”

Make a statement

A statement in Future perfect tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

I, you, we, they

will

have

worked

on project

He, she, it

will

have

worked

on project

I, you , we, they

will

not have

worked

on project

He, she, it

will

not have

worked

on project

Structure for statement in general can be:

Subject + will + have + Verb (past participle) + Object (positive statement)

Subject + will + no, not, never + have + Verb (past participle) + Object (negative statement)

Ask a question

While forming interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. Following can be use of Future perfect tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main Verb

Object

Will

you, we, they

have

roasted

chicken?

Will

He, she, it

have

roasted

chicken?

Will

you, we, they

not have

roasted

chicken?

Will

He, she, it

not have

roasted

chicken?

Now there are few situations where the Future perfect tense is used.

Completed in future before something new in future

It expresses the idea of something occurring before something that is yet to occur in future

  • By next month, I will have enjoyed my vacation.
  • I will have worked it out before the results.
  • She will have the clothes washed before leaving.
  • She will have the food cooked for her family.

Duration of action

It is used to express the time limit for the action to be performed.

  • They will have to be grounded in 10 days.
  • He will have drilled the wall within two hours.
  • They will have escaped the trap by tomorrow.
  • They will have the glass broken in 2 minutes.

Thanks for your support. Keep encouraging us with your likes and shares.

English Grammar: Past Perfect Tense

During our English speaking courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at past perfect tense and its applications in spoken English.

Past perfect tense refers to a non-continuous action that was completed in the past. Such sentences are formed by using the past perfect form of the auxiliary verb ‘to had ‘, followed by the past participle form of the verb.

Verb

In past perfect tense, the main verb is in its past participle form while auxiliary verb ‘had’ is used.

Make a statement

A statement in past perfect tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

I, you, we, they

had

cooked

food

He, she, it

had

cooked

food

I, you , we, they

had

not

cooked

food

He, she, it

had

not

cooked

food

Structure for a statement, in general, can be:

Subject + had + past participle of main verb + Object (positive statement)

Subject + had + no, not, never + past participle of main verb + Object (negative statement)

Ask a question

While forming an interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. The following can be used of past perfect tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main Verb

Object

Had

you, we, they

cooked

food?

Had

He, she, it

cooked

food?

Had

you, we, they

not

cooked

food?

Had

He, she, it

not

cooked

food?

Had + Subject + past participle of main verb + Object (Positive statement)

Had + Subject + no, not, never + past participle of main verb + Object (Negative statement)

Following are few situations where the past perfect tense is used.

Completion of task

Past perfect describes the completion of the task in the past.

  • I had never had such delicious sweets.
  • I had completed my graduation way before you did.
  • I had completed the task and then only I was allowed to leave.
  • He had done his masters before getting into a job.

Happening in distant past

It shows the activity of past before another activity in the past itself.

  • We had stuck to Satyagraha, until the British rule was over.
  • We had experienced the fight till it got over.
  • We had gone to the parlor before we went for the party.
  • I had cleaned the mess before I left my room.

English Grammar: Present Perfect Tense

During our Business English: speaking courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at Present Perfect Tense and its applications in spoken English.

Present perfect tense is the tense that is used the most in the English language, in general, used to talk about now.

Verb

In present perfect tense, past participle form of the main verb is used. It is framed by adding “has/have” as an auxiliary verb before the actual verb.

Make a statement

A statement in present perfect tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

I, you, we, they

have

played

football

He, she, it

has

played

football

I, you , we, they

have

Not

played

football

He, she, it

has

Not

played

football

Structure for constructing a statement, in general, can be:

Subject + has/have + Main Verb (past participle) + Object (positive statement)

Subject + has/have + no, not, never +Main Verb (past participle) + Object (negative statement)

Ask a question

While forming an interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. The following can be used of present perfect tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main Verb

Object

Have

you, we, they

played

football?

Has

He, she, it

played

football?

Have

you, we, they

Not

played

football?

Has

he, she, it

Not

played

football?

Has/Have + Subject + Verb (participle) + Object (positive statement)

Has/Have + Subject + no, not, never + Verb (participle) + Object (negative statement)

Generally, past perfect tense is used to describe activities that started in past and just finished. Following are few situations where the present perfect tense is used.

Description of the situation

Present Perfect Tense is used to describe any sort of experience.

  • They have realized that it was their mistake.
  • They have done a wonderful job.
  • He has scored excellently in his boards.
  • I have not done my homework.

Changes occurred

If you are using the present perfect tense, it may sometimes denote to the changes that have happened over the time with the object or with the subject.

  • The view of the city has developed over time.
  • His behavior has changed over these years.
  • She has motivated herself a lot.
  • They have guided the outlook of people.

Expressing Achievements

Any type of success or achievements can be expressed with the help of the present perfect tense.

  • I have passed the boards with flying colors.
  • They have won the match with no difficulty.
  • He has outspoken his brother.
  • She has achieved a great success in her life.

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