Vocabulary: Discrete VS Discreet

Discreet implies the showing of reserve and prudence in one’s behavior or speech.

Discrete means something quite different: “distinct, separate and unrelated.”

DISCRETE

It originates from Latin word – Discretus (Separated)

Discrete mainly means the expression of something being very Different/Unique and separated.

Used as Verb

To express the meaning of difference

“For making the lesson more easy, they discrete them into various segments”

Used as Adjective

To express the uniqueness of the object

“His ideas were always discrete, regardless of any situation”

DISCREET

It originates from Middle English Discret

Discreet is the word used to express the extreme inclination or support of anything or anybody towards anyone or anything.

Used as Adjective

It is used to indicate if judicious in one’s conduct or speech

“The French language was to be enriched by a development of its internal resources and by discreet borrowing from the Latin and Greek.”

Conclusion

When you differentiate between two things then you use discrete to state the differentiation of both the things

But, when you are reserved or judicious for some person or something, you shall be using discreet to express your reserved attitude towards the person or the things.

RETROSPECT your past, INTROSPECT yourself & SPECULATE a better future

Our state of mind reflects our moods or attitude in life. Sometimes we feel happy and sometimes sad; recalling what we did and what could have happened? In order to annotate these situations, knowing appropriate words is very important. This post shall help you to materialize these words in the following paragraphs.

RETROSPECT—

While looking back and contemplating the past — we sometimes find ourselves wishing that we had done some things differently. Though this word most commonly appears as a noun in the phrase “in retrospect,” it can also be used as a verb.

It’s Origin

The prefix retro- means “back,” and spec is a component of the words inspect, spectator, spectacles, and perspective, among others, all of which have to do with looking or seeing. So it makes sense that retrospect means to look back in time, or to remember

For Example: “To meditate is to retrospect ones deeds”

INTROSPECT –

“to look inside,” and describes the act of thinking about your own actions or inner thoughts. When you examine what you do, say, think or feel and how it affects your life and the lives of others, that’s introspection.

It’s Origin

Intro means “within,” while spec is from the Latin for “look.” So you can tell that the word means the act of “looking within.”

It’s like searching inside in order to understand yourself — what some people mock as “navel gazing.”

For example: Nineteenth-century philosopher William Godwin once said, “The philosophy of the wisest man that ever existed is mainly derived from the act of introspection.”

SPECULATE –

When you speculate, you use what you know to make a prediction about an outcome,

It’s Origin

It is having a Latin origin, speculatus, meaning “to spy out, examine

For Example: After completing his graduation from a foreign university, Mohit Speculated a high paid and prestigious job.

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English Grammar: Simple Future Tense

During our English speaking courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at Simple present tense and it applications in spoken English.

Simple future tense is a basic tense, in general used to talk about possibilities or intentions in general.

Verb

In simple future tense, first form of verb is used with Auxiliary verb: will or shall. Now, Victorian English suggests us to use only shall with first person. This is no longer followed by majority. In order to understand their modern day usage, please follow our blog here.

Make a statement

A statement in simple Future Tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

I, you, we, they

will

play

cricket

He, she, it

will

play

cricket

I, you , we, they

will

not

play

cricket

He, she, it

will

not

play

cricket

Structure for positive statement in general can be:

Subject + Auxiliary Verb + first form of Verb + Object (positive statement)

Subject + Auxiliary Verb + not + first form of Main Verb + Object (negative statement)

Ask a question

While forming interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. Following can be use of Simple Future Tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main Verb

Object

Will

I, you, we, they

play

cricket?

Will

He, she, it

play

cricket?

Will

not

I, you, we, they

play

cricket?

Will

not

He, she, it

play

cricket?

In general structure of interrogative sentence can be

Auxiliary verb + Subject + first form of Main verb + Object ? (positive question)

Auxiliary verb + not + Subject + first form of Main verb + Object ? (negative question)

Applications of Simple Future Tense

There are many applications of Simple Future Tense. Following is a list of the applications in general.

1.     Express a voluntary action.

A voluntary action is one, the speaker offers to do for someone else. We use “will” to respond to someone else’s complaint or request for help. We also use “will” when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. Similarly, we use “will not” or “won’t” when we refuse to voluntarily do something.

I will send you the information when I get it.

I will translate the email, so Mr. Subhash can read it.

Will you help me move this heavy table?

Will you make dinner?

2.     Promise

Your promises to complete a particular action must be expressed in Simple Future Tense.

I will call you when I arrive.

I will prepare a tasty cake on your birthday.

I promise I will not tell anybody about the party.

Don’t worry, I’ll be careful.

3.     Prediction

Predictions about future canbe presented in Simple Future Tense.

The year 2015 will be a very interesting year.

Narendra Modi will be the next Prime Minister.

The movie “Two States” will win several Awards.

4.     Plans

You may express your plans using Simple Future Tense.

I will start my journey at 5.10 in morning.

I will meet you at station at around 7 O’clock.

She will reach home in time.

English Grammar: Simple Past Tense

During our English speaking courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at Simple present tense and its applications in spoken English.

Simple past tense is a basic tense, in general, used to talk about what happened in past.

Verb

In simple past tense, the second form of a verb is used. In cases of regular verbs –ed is added at the end. You need to pay attention in using the right form in case of irregular verbs. For example, the second form of the verb for sleep is ‘slept’. In case, if you are using an auxiliary verb, past form is transferred from the main verb to auxiliary as follows.

Make a statement

A statement in simple past tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

I, you, we, they

liked

coffee

He, she, it

liked

coffee

I, you , we, they

did

not

like

coffee

He, she, it

did

not

like

coffee

Structure for a positive statement in general can be:

Subject + second form of Verb + Object

(positive statement)

Subject + Auxiliary Verb + not + first form of Main Verb + Object

(negative statement)

Ask a question

While forming an interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. The following can be used of simple past tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main Verb

Object

Did

I, you, we, they

like

coffee?

Did

He, she, it

like

coffee?

Did

not

I, you, we, they

like

coffee?

Did

not

He, she, it

like

coffee?

In general structure of interrogative sentence can be

Auxiliary verb + Subject + first form of Main verb + Object ?

(positive question)

Auxiliary verb + not + Subject + first form of Main verb + Object ?

(negative question)

Applications of Simple past tense

There are many applications of simple past tense. Following is a list of the applications in general.

1. Talk about an action that started and finished at a specific time in the past.

Your activities of the past, which started at a specific time in the day and ended at a specific time, must be described in Simple past tense. Following are examples

We saw a movie in city pride yesterday.

I talked to my friends on the cell phone.

She didn’t attend the speaking class.

He didn’t wash the car.

2.     List series of actions

Your series of actions that happened in a particular attempt or trip or endeavor, must be described in Simple past tense.

I finished the office work, caught the bus & came back to the home.

She put on the track suit and went for jogging.

The maid cleaned the utensils, washed the clothes and cooked the food.

Did you affix the post stamps & post the letter?

3.     Narrating duration

While narrating about the duration you spent doing something can be described in simple past tense.

I lived in Pune for about ten years

She studied German in just six months.

The maid didn’t turn up on Sunday.

He worked with Infosys for 4 years.

4.     Talk about habits of the past

You can discuss habits of the past using simple past tense

I always participated in the school gathering.

She often played guitar in the party.

He never played any sport in the school life.

Did you ever study sincerely in your childhood?

English Grammar: Simple present tense

During our English speaking courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at Simple Present Tense and it supplications in spoken English.

Simple present tense is basic tense, in general, used to talk about now.

Verb

In Simple Present Tense, a basic form of a verb is used. It changes based on the subject by adding -s/-es at the end in case subject used is third person singular.

Make a statement

A statement in simple present tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

I, you, we, they

like

coffee

He, she, it

likes

coffee

I, you , we, they

do

not

like

coffee

He, she, it

does

not

like

coffee

Structure for a positive statement, in general, can be:

Subject + Verb + Object (positive statement)

Subject + Auxiliary Verb + not + Main Verb + Object (negative statement)

Ask a question

While forming an interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. The following can be used of simple present tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary VerbSubjectMain VerbObject

Do

I, you, we, they

like

coffee?

Does

He, she, it

like

coffee?

Do

not

I, you, we, they

like

coffee?

Does

not

He, she, it

like

coffee?

In general structure of interrogative sentence can be

Auxiliary verb + Subject + Main verb + Object ? (positive question)

Auxiliary verb + not + Subject + Main verb + Object ? (negative question)

Applications of Simple present tense

There are many applications of simple present tense. Following is a list of the applications in general.

1.     Mentioning facts

All facts which are indisputable are stated in Simple present tense. It doesn’t matter if they have already happened in past. What matters is if they happened yesterday, happening today and will happen tomorrow? Following are examples

The sun rises in the east.

People need food.

It snows in winter.

The sky isn’t green.

2.     Talking about habits

While talking about your daily habits you may use Simple present tense.

Do you pray GOD every day?

I play tennis every Tuesday.

We often go to the cinema.

She gets up at seven o’clock every day.

3.     Narrating about books, films, and sports

While narrating about the book you just read or films you just watched or game that you just saw, simple present tense comes handy. This is because you are trying to recreate the magic for your friends and want them re-live the experience.

The hero dies at the end of the film.

A young man travels through Europe, where he meets different people.

In this book, an army invades Britain.

The main character is very a young student and works in a bookshop.

4.     Discussing a fixed timetable or plan

Simple present tense is used in discussing routine timetables or plans.

School begins at 11.30 am tomorrow.

Our train leaves at eleven.

What time does the film start?

The train arrives at seven, it leaves at seven thirty.

5.     Expressing thoughts, feelings, and states

Thoughts and feelings are always mentioned in simple present tense since you are in that moment.

It matters a great deal to him to win the game.

They feel a lot of loyalty to the company.

Ramesh doubts the truth of his statement.

She deeply regrets saying those nasty things about him.

6.     Newspapers and headlines

Headlines employ simple present tense in order to recreate the event in your imagination.

Police discover many more dead bodies.

Something wrong in Jet Crash, expert says.

Police begin a campaign to run down Naxalites.

Drunk gets nine months imprisonment.

7.     For instructions and directions

Have you ever read instructions on your shampoo bottle, they are always in simple present tense.

Mix the flour & water together, then add sugar.

Go straight on & take your first right.

Open your books and read loudly.

Park your vehicle here.

8.     In declaration or promise

I declare this pet show open.

I promise you, I won’t do anything stupid.

I assure you everything will be all right.

I announce the program is over.

 

I hope this helps. Your likes, comments and shares are highly appreciated.

Improve your vocabulary

In this blog we are sharing our experiences on how to improve your English vocabulary. It is one of the most significant questions where English is a second language.

As an Institute which teaches Business English: Speaking and writing we are often asked this question, “What should we do, to improve our vocabulary?” Initially, I used give text-book answers which included, “Read lot of English books. Underline difficult words. Refer dictionary to understand the meaning. Try to use that word in different contexts and that’s how you can improve your vocabulary.” Over the years, I realised, this may be effective way to learn new words but not effective to retain it. English is a second Language for me and even I could not learn new words in English like this. How am I going to ask students to learn this way? My vocabulary improved when I started taking few extra efforts. I am not claiming this to be an elixir, but this improved method is surely effective.

Listen to quality English

It is a common experience that we retain a lot of information through listening. Most of us haven’t read anything beyond newspapers in years. But, we listen to radio and also watch television. Next time, instead of tuning to local dialect, tune into English channels, be little alert. Next time, while buying newspaper, look for English edition. While listening or reading, look out for difficult words. Keep a log book where you can jot these words down.

Guess the meanings

Instead of rushing towards dictionary, take a moment. Based on the context, try to guess the meanings of the word. Initially you may fail miserably. That’s alright. With time you will be able to guess the meanings more often than not. Write down sentence with your guess word into your log book.

Take the Dictionary

After guessing the meaning, take dictionary into your hands. I am sure; you may not have that fat book available everywhere, you get stuck with a word. Use your smart phone smartly. You can go to Dictionary.com or en.wiktioanry.org to find meaning of the word and its usage. Note it down into your log for future reference.

Find etymology and history

Apart from meaning and usage, looking up for etymology and history of the word helps a lot. Both sources mentioned above have these sections. Etymology helps you understand the source of a particular word. Using it, you may dissect complex word into simple words in order to make meaning out of it. History part of the word normally contains an interesting story about the word.

Advantage of referring to etymology is that you remember simple words which make complex words. Next time, a complex word appears, you can dissect it, to understand its meaning. As human beings we all love stories. We can remember them in much better way and hence retain the word for long time.

I hope you find it interesting. Please like, comment and share. Your suggestions are really important.

Write effective mails

During our Business English: Writing classes, we encounter experienced professionals, taking a lot of time to write an effective email. In case they are at position, which requires lot of mail exchanges, they ignore importance of writing effective mail. Counterargument of such seniors is that, as far as communication is done, it is alright to just scribble down messages. What they forget is, merely writing things down that come to your mind is not communication. Through your mails, you should be able to convey your thoughts and generate an action that you intend to.

We are writing this blog to make you aware of simple steps that you might take to make your emails effective.

Brainstorm

When you sit down to write an email, don’t focus on impact initially. Deal with impact later. Just sit down and think of the things that are necessary to say. There are many softwares available for this process. In my opinion, legal pad and pencil would be as effective as any other tool. Jot down the points you think that must be communicated.

After writing points down, group these points with some criterion. This criterion could be responsibilities, priorities or timeline. This will help your reader understand your mind in better way. Look at this blog, I categorized my writing into three parts based on levels of activity. It creates homogeneity in writing. Also, if you could condense down the matter in these paragraphs into few words and put it as a title, readers can anticipate in advance what they might read in the mail. It helps set realistic expectation for what is going to follow on.

Write first draft

Do not wait for the inspiration. Neatly organized, substantial content, scores over inspirational letter in business. We are not trying to recreate Shakespeare’s magic here. Just start with the points. Write down relevant sentences to the points. You may miss few words in first draft, but do not stop and re-correct for two reasons. First, you may lose the idea you were writing and it may not come out that effectively. Second, after completing mail, you may become blind to your own mistakes. So, focus on writing as far as possible without bothering much about mistakes.

Once you are done with the body of the email, focus on its beginning and end. Write them down. You have said what you have to and now you are in better position to write appropriate beginning and also summarize effectively at the end.

Revise and Edit

Once you have written down all your points, you know main job of writing is over. All your ideas are on the paper. Now start revising and editing the mail. Watch out for few words, it’s better to have dictionary handy when you wish to convey particular nuances of words.

After correcting your mail for grammatical mistakes you may like to show it to your colleague, just to make sure, your mail is in same mood that you wanted it to be. For insistence, in follow-up mail to a client you choose to urge him that, he needs the product and you have quoted rock bottom prize. You do not wish to beg for the order. Get this checked from your colleague.

In conclusion, three steps just mentioned will help you write effective mail. I hope this helps you in your day to day jobs. Also, to summarize, it took me about forty minutes to complete this blog with same principles I just explained. It’s not that bad, I guess.

Please like and keep encouraging us for writing such content regularly.