Know the Nouns

Most of the readers shall describe noun as “a place, a person or a thing”. This is not a complete explanation of NOUN. A noun is not necessarily always a physical substance; it can be of any intangible form as well. For example: Feeling of happiness or the artistic beauty of a painting.

Nouns have various categories, they are:

  1. Count Nouns
  2. Uncounted Nouns
  3. Proper Nouns
  4. Common Nouns
  5. Collective Nouns
  6. Concrete Nouns
  7. Abstract Nouns

COUNT NOUNS

Count nouns are the types of nouns that express the place, person or thing either in a singular or more than a singular expression.

Count nouns have two forms:

Singular

Plural

Singular Nouns

Singular nouns are the types of nouns that express the singularity or being the 1 of any one place, any one person, or any one thing

Plural Nouns

Plural Nouns are the types of nouns that express the plurality or being more than one of any more than one place, any more than one person, or more than one thing.

For Example

A valley (it expresses a single place), a tree (it expresses a single thing), a

player (it expresses a single person)

For Example

A number of valleys (it expresses more than one place), a forest of trees (it expresses more than one trees)

Few rules of plural nouns are listed below:

  1. We usually add –s to make a plural noun:

For example – boy-s, girl-s, toy-s, tree-s etc.

  1. We add -es to nouns ending in –ss; -ch; -s; -sh; -x

For example- grass-es, church-es, gas-es, fish-es, ox-es etc.

  1. When a noun ends in a consonant and -y we make the plural in –ies

For example- baby=babies, fairy=fairies, cherry=cherries

  1. When a noun ends in a vowel and -y we simply add -s:

For example- momo=momos, eye=eyes, apple=apples

  1. Some nouns have uncertain plurals.

For example- mouse=mice, Goose=Geese

UNCOUNTED NOUNS-

We do not use uncounted nouns in the plural. Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot “count” them. For example, we cannot count “milk”. We can count “bottles of milk” or “liters of milk”, but we cannot count “milk” itself.

For example – We drank a lot of coffee

For example – That’s useful advice

Uncounted nouns often refer to:

SubstancesIron, table, chair, biscuit
Human feelings or qualitiesAnxiety, sadness, merry, happy
ActivitiesRun, sleep, talk, sneeze
Abstract ideas:Life, urge, death

Here are few examples of countable and uncountable nouns.

COUNTABLEUNCOUNTABLE
TableFurniture
PoemsRhythm
TreesForest
FactoryIndustry
DewRainfall

PROPER NOUNS –

A PROPER NOUN is a noun which usually refers to a singular or collection of entities. Some proper nouns occur in plural form, and then they refer to groups of entities considered as unique. Names of people, place and person are known as Proper Noun. We generally start the proper nouns with CAPITAL letters.

William Shakespeare, Richard, Pune etc

Proper nouns are not normally preceded by an article or other limiting modifier, as any or some. Nor are they usually pluralized. But the language allows for exceptions

COMMON NOUNS

According to Oxford – Common nouns are the nouns that can be preceded by an indefinite article and denotes any or all member of the class.

Let me simplify it to you.

Common nouns are the types of nouns which do not specify a person or any place or anything in particular but refers to it as in general aspect like for example, dog, city, humans etc. these are the common nouns.

COLLECTIVE NOUNS

According to Oxford – A noun, though singular refers to a group of things, or animals.

I hope that this definition is pretty simple

Now I would give you a list of collective nouns.

An army of soldiers

A herd of sheep

A dozen of Eggs

A pack of wolves

A bunch of sticks

A crowd of people

A club of lions

A group of dancers.

A team of players

CONCRETE NOUNS

Concrete nouns are those types of nouns which denote something tangible or material, such as a person or a place.

For Example – Machine, Tree, Jack etc

Pretty Simple ha? That’s what we do. We make it simpler for you to understand.

ABSTRACT NOUN

Abstract Nouns are the type of nouns which does not have a physical form that cannot be touched; it is a noun that denotes an idea, an emotion, feeling, quality or other abstract or intangible concepts.

For Example-

Happiness

Sadness

Anger, etc.

English Grammar: Future Perfect Continuous Tense

During our English speaking courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at Future perfect continuous tense and its applications in spoken English.

The Future perfect continuous expresses that the action shall start sometime in the future and shall continue in the future

Verb

In future perfect continuous tense the verb is generally used in its present participle form and it is supported by the auxiliary verb, “will have been”

Make a statement

A statement in Future perfect continuous tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

I, You, We, They

will have been

roasting

chicken

He, She, It

will have been

roasting

chicken

I, You , We, They

will

not have been

roasting

chicken

He, She, It

will

not have been

roasting

chicken

Structure for constructing statement in general can be:

Subject + will + have been+ Verb (present participle) + Object (positive statement)

Subject + will + no, not, never + have been + Verb (present participle) + Object (negative statement)

Ask a question

While forming interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. Following can be use of Future perfect continuous tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main Verb

Object

Will

you, we, they

have been

roasting

chicken?

Will

he, she, it

have been

roasting

chicken?

Will

you, we, they

not have been

roasting

chicken?

Will

he, she, it

not have been

roasting

chicken?

Will + subject + have been+ Verb (present participle) + Object (positive statement)

Will + subject + no, not, never + have been + Verb (present participle) + Object (negative statement)

Now there are few situations where the Future perfect continuous tense is used.

Duration of future happenings

Future perfect continuous tense tells us about the duration of any activity that happens in future

  • They will have been waiting for an hour before jack arrives.
  • Will you have been working when you will work with them?
  • Will you have been planning of staying here before your flat gets ready?

Cause of something that shall happen in future

It shows cause and effect relation of an activity.

  • He will have been working to make his family happy.
  • He will be soaked in sweat because he will have been walking back home.
  • He will have been drinking due to his loss.

English Grammar: Past Perfect Continuous Tense

During our Business English: speaking courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at past perfect continuous tense and its applications in spoken English.

Past perfect continuous is used to show the continuity of the activity in past, to talk about the things that had happened in the past over a period of time.

Verb

Here main verb is in –ing form and auxiliary verb is “had been”.

Make a statement

A statement in past perfect continuous tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

I, You, We, They

had

been

drinking

coffee

He, She, It

had

been

drinking

coffee

I, You , We, They

had

not been

drinking

coffee

He, She, It

had

not been

drinking

coffee

Structure for constructing a statement in general can be:

Subject + had + been + Main Verb -ing + Object (positive statement)

Subject + had+ no, not, never + been + Main Verb -ing + Object (negative statement)

Ask a question

While forming interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. Following can be use of past perfect continuous tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main VerbObject

Had

I, You, We, They

beendrinkingcoffee?

Had

He, She, It

beendrinkingcoffee?

Had

I, You, We, They

not beendrinkingcoffee?

Had

He, She, It

not beendrinkingcoffee?

Now there are few situations where the past perfect continuous tense is used.

Duration in the past

The main use of the Past Perfect Continuous is to express actions or situations that were in progress before some other actions or situations.

  • The workers had been working the whole day in double shifts.
  • The children had been playing in the garden when the snake was found.
  • The people of the United States had been revolting before independence.
  • Rupa had been baking the cake, before two days.

Showing Cause

This tense is used to show cause of an action or situation in the past.

He had been successful in his life because of his hard work and dedication.

  • They had been motivated for the work by the lectures.
  • She had been doing the work for running the family.
  • It had been digging the soil for hiding the bone.

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English Grammar: Present Perfect Continuous Tense

During our English speaking courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at Present perfect continuous tense and its applications in spoken English.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense is mainly used to express as the activity that started in the past and is still continuing in the present and you can express the time from when the activity started.

Verb

In present perfect continuous tense the verb is expressed by adding -ing at the end and by using an auxiliary verb before the actual verb in the sentence.

Make a statement

A statement in Present perfect continuous tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

I, you, we, they

have been

drinking

coffee

He, she, it

has been

drinking

coffee

I, you , we, they

have

not been

drinking

coffee

He, she, it

has

not been

drinking

coffee

Structure for statement in general can be:

Subject + has/have + been + Verb –ing form + Object (positive statement)

Subject + has/have + no, not, never + been + Verb-ing form + Object (negative statement)

Ask a question

While forming interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. Following can be use of present perfect continuous tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main Verb

Object

Have

you, we, they

been

drinking

coffee?

Has

He, she, it

been

drinking

coffee?

Have

you, we, they

not been

drinking

coffee?

Have

He, she, it

not been

drinking

coffee ?

Has/have + been + Subject + Verb -ing form + Object (positive question)

Has/have + Subject + no, not, never + been + Verb -ing form + Object (negative question)

Now there are few situations where the present perfect continuous tense is used.

Time Duration

This tense is used to express the time duration of the activity.

  • He has been watching TV for 2 hours.
  • They have been working hard for the last month.
  • I have been jogging for past 1 hour.

Temporary Activity

Temporary activity going on and is tend to get over in a fixed period of time.

  • They have been living here for two days.
  • He has been going to classes daily.
  • I have been doing what I am told to do.

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English Grammar: Future Perfect Tense

During our English speaking courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at Future perfect tense and its applications in spoken English.

The Future perfect tense indicates that an action will be completed (finished or perfected) at some point of time in the future.

Verb

In future perfect tense the verb is generally used in its past participle form and it is supported by the auxiliary verb, “will have”

Make a statement

A statement in Future perfect tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

I, you, we, they

will

have

worked

on project

He, she, it

will

have

worked

on project

I, you , we, they

will

not have

worked

on project

He, she, it

will

not have

worked

on project

Structure for statement in general can be:

Subject + will + have + Verb (past participle) + Object (positive statement)

Subject + will + no, not, never + have + Verb (past participle) + Object (negative statement)

Ask a question

While forming interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. Following can be use of Future perfect tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main Verb

Object

Will

you, we, they

have

roasted

chicken?

Will

He, she, it

have

roasted

chicken?

Will

you, we, they

not have

roasted

chicken?

Will

He, she, it

not have

roasted

chicken?

Now there are few situations where the Future perfect tense is used.

Completed in future before something new in future

It expresses the idea of something occurring before something that is yet to occur in future

  • By next month, I will have enjoyed my vacation.
  • I will have worked it out before the results.
  • She will have the clothes washed before leaving.
  • She will have the food cooked for her family.

Duration of action

It is used to express the time limit for the action to be performed.

  • They will have to be grounded in 10 days.
  • He will have drilled the wall within two hours.
  • They will have escaped the trap by tomorrow.
  • They will have the glass broken in 2 minutes.

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English Grammar: Past Perfect Tense

During our English speaking courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at past perfect tense and its applications in spoken English.

Past perfect tense refers to a non-continuous action that was completed in the past. Such sentences are formed by using the past perfect form of the auxiliary verb ‘to had ‘, followed by the past participle form of the verb.

Verb

In past perfect tense, the main verb is in its past participle form while auxiliary verb ‘had’ is used.

Make a statement

A statement in past perfect tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

I, you, we, they

had

cooked

food

He, she, it

had

cooked

food

I, you , we, they

had

not

cooked

food

He, she, it

had

not

cooked

food

Structure for a statement, in general, can be:

Subject + had + past participle of main verb + Object (positive statement)

Subject + had + no, not, never + past participle of main verb + Object (negative statement)

Ask a question

While forming an interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. The following can be used of past perfect tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main Verb

Object

Had

you, we, they

cooked

food?

Had

He, she, it

cooked

food?

Had

you, we, they

not

cooked

food?

Had

He, she, it

not

cooked

food?

Had + Subject + past participle of main verb + Object (Positive statement)

Had + Subject + no, not, never + past participle of main verb + Object (Negative statement)

Following are few situations where the past perfect tense is used.

Completion of task

Past perfect describes the completion of the task in the past.

  • I had never had such delicious sweets.
  • I had completed my graduation way before you did.
  • I had completed the task and then only I was allowed to leave.
  • He had done his masters before getting into a job.

Happening in distant past

It shows the activity of past before another activity in the past itself.

  • We had stuck to Satyagraha, until the British rule was over.
  • We had experienced the fight till it got over.
  • We had gone to the parlor before we went for the party.
  • I had cleaned the mess before I left my room.

English Grammar: Present Perfect Tense

During our Business English: speaking courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at Present Perfect Tense and its applications in spoken English.

Present perfect tense is the tense that is used the most in the English language, in general, used to talk about now.

Verb

In present perfect tense, past participle form of the main verb is used. It is framed by adding “has/have” as an auxiliary verb before the actual verb.

Make a statement

A statement in present perfect tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

I, you, we, they

have

played

football

He, she, it

has

played

football

I, you , we, they

have

Not

played

football

He, she, it

has

Not

played

football

Structure for constructing a statement, in general, can be:

Subject + has/have + Main Verb (past participle) + Object (positive statement)

Subject + has/have + no, not, never +Main Verb (past participle) + Object (negative statement)

Ask a question

While forming an interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. The following can be used of present perfect tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main Verb

Object

Have

you, we, they

played

football?

Has

He, she, it

played

football?

Have

you, we, they

Not

played

football?

Has

he, she, it

Not

played

football?

Has/Have + Subject + Verb (participle) + Object (positive statement)

Has/Have + Subject + no, not, never + Verb (participle) + Object (negative statement)

Generally, past perfect tense is used to describe activities that started in past and just finished. Following are few situations where the present perfect tense is used.

Description of the situation

Present Perfect Tense is used to describe any sort of experience.

  • They have realized that it was their mistake.
  • They have done a wonderful job.
  • He has scored excellently in his boards.
  • I have not done my homework.

Changes occurred

If you are using the present perfect tense, it may sometimes denote to the changes that have happened over the time with the object or with the subject.

  • The view of the city has developed over time.
  • His behavior has changed over these years.
  • She has motivated herself a lot.
  • They have guided the outlook of people.

Expressing Achievements

Any type of success or achievements can be expressed with the help of the present perfect tense.

  • I have passed the boards with flying colors.
  • They have won the match with no difficulty.
  • He has outspoken his brother.
  • She has achieved a great success in her life.

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English Grammar: Future Continuous Tense

During our Business English: speaking courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at Future continuous tense and its applications in spoken English.

Future continuous tense signifies that the action shall start at some unspecified time in future and shall continue in distant future or up till a given point of time.

Verb

In Future continuous tense the sentence is formed by adding -ing at the end of the verb and using an auxiliary verb (will be) before the actual verb in the sentence.

Make a statement

A statement in Future continuous tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

I, you, we, they

Will

be

cooking

Food

He, she, it

Will

be

cooking

Food

I, you , we, they

Will

not be

cooking

Food

He, she, it

Will

not be

cooking

Food

Structure for statement in general can be:

Subject +Auxiliary Verb + be + Verb-ing + Object (positive statement)

Subject + Auxiliary Verb + not + be + Verb-ing + Object (negative statement)

Ask a question

While forming interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. Following can be use of Future continuous tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main Verb

Object

Will

you, we, they

be

cooking

food?

Will

he, she, it

be

cooking

food?

Will

you, we, they

be not

cooking

food?

Will

he, she, it

be not

cooking

food?

Auxiliary Verb + Subject + be + Main Verb –ing + Object (positive question)

Auxiliary Verb + Subject + be + not + Main Verb –ing + Object (negative question)

Now there are few situations where the Future continuous tense is used.

Occurrence in future and shall continue

Future Continuous Tense is to describe an activity that will occur in the future and continue for a certain period of time.

  • Jack will be staying in Paris next week.
  • She will be going to Dubai for a meeting.
  • She will be traveling for promotion after a year.
  • He will be starting the job after the holiday.

Activities that started now and will end in future

It is used to express an activity that will continue over a period of time from now (present) and shall end in the future.

  • They will be playing till the evening.
  • She will be studying till the dawn breaks.
  • He will be training him till he is excellent.
  • They will be revolting until the government changes

Parallel actions in future

When you use the Future Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions will be happening at the same point of time. The actions are parallel.

  • I will be cooking and he is going to serve dinner.
  • Tonight, they will be celebrating Christmas, and will have a good time.
  • While I will be reading out the lesson, ever body shall be looking at the book.
  • While he will be playing outside, I will be completing the household chores.

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English Grammar: Past Continuous Tense

During our Business English courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at past continuous tense and its applications in spoken English.

Past Continuous Tense expresses the activities which were going on in past but have ended now, that are in present. These sentences are formed with the help of an auxiliary verb and giving the main verb an ‘ing’ ending.

Verb

In Past Continuous Tense, -ing form of the verb is used. Past form is transferred to auxiliary verb.

Make a statement

A statement in past continuous tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

You, we, they

were

cooking

food

I, He, she, it

was

cooking

food

You , we, they

were

not

cooking

food

I, He, she, it

was

not

cooking

food

Structure for a statement, in general, can be:

Subject + past form of “to be” + Verb-ing + Object (positive statement)

Subject + past form of “to be” + not + Verb-ing + Object (negative statement)

Ask a question

While forming an interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. The following can be used of past continuous tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main Verb

Object

Were

you, we, they

cooking

food?

Was

I, he, she, it

cooking

food?

Were

you, we, they

not

cooking

food?

Was

I, he, she, it

not

cooking

food?

Now there are few situations where the past continuous tense is used.

Continuous actions in past

It states a continuous action which is either supported or is interrupted by any other activity of the past

  • I was bathing when you called.
  • I was doing household chores before I came in hostel.
  • I was reading when you dropped the ball.
  • He was completing his masters before getting into a job.

Simultaneous Occurrences

It describes any two activities that have occurred in the past simultaneously.

  • They were traveling in the bus when the flood broke.
  • It started raining when I planned to go cycling.
  • It was beaming with light when I opened it.
  • He was bleeding when I took him to the hospital.

Re-occurrences

It describes the occurring and re-occurring event of past.

  • He was doing the same mistake every time.
  • He was practicing the sum repeatedly.
  • The principal was taking frequent rounds.
  • The lever was going up and down repeatedly.

 

 

 

 

English Grammar: Present Continuous Tense

During our English speaking courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at Present Continuous Tense and its applications in spoken English.

Present Continuous Tense is basic tense with shows the continuity of the activity in past, in general, used to talk about now.

Verb

In Present Continuous Tense, -ing is added at the end of the base form of a verb.

Make a statement

A statement in Present Continuous Tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

 you, we, they

are

drinking

coffee

He, she, it

is

drinking

coffee

you , we, they

are

not

drinking

coffee

He, she, it

is

not

drinking

coffee

Structure for a statement, in general, can be:

Subject + Auxiliary Verb + Main Verb -ing + Object (positive statement)

Subject + Auxiliary Verb + no, not, never + Main Verb-ing + Object (negative statement)

Ask a question

While forming an interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. The following can be used of present continuous tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main Verb

Object

Are

you, we, they

drinking

coffee?

Is

he, she, it

drinking

coffee?

Are

you, we, they

not

drinking

coffee?

Is

he, she, it

not

drinking

coffee?

 

Now there are few situations where the present continuous tense is used.

Current Occurrence:

We use this tense for expressing the activities that are happening now, that is current occurrence of the activity. I am watching Big Bang theory on the television. This is the application of the present continuous tense that the action of watching the television is going on NOW.

He is fixing the car.

They are going to a party.

I am going for a walk.

Is he reaching in time?

Activity that is going on and may finish in fixed period

We use this tense when there is a temporary activity going on and is tend to get over in a fixed period of time.

Rena is visiting her aunt’s place for a week.

They are going to a camp for a day.

He is coming back after 2 hours

I am starting a foreign tour for a week

Planning and deciding future activities.

It also helps in planning and deciding the future activities.

We are planning to go swimming tomorrow.

He is planning to switch career.

I am planning a vacation next week.

They are deciding to go rafting.

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