English Grammar: Present Perfect Tense

During our Business English: speaking courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at Present Perfect Tense and its applications in spoken English.

Present perfect tense is the tense that is used the most in the English language, in general, used to talk about now.

Verb

In present perfect tense, past participle form of the main verb is used. It is framed by adding “has/have” as an auxiliary verb before the actual verb.

Make a statement

A statement in present perfect tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

I, you, we, they

have

played

football

He, she, it

has

played

football

I, you , we, they

have

Not

played

football

He, she, it

has

Not

played

football

Structure for constructing a statement, in general, can be:

Subject + has/have + Main Verb (past participle) + Object (positive statement)

Subject + has/have + no, not, never +Main Verb (past participle) + Object (negative statement)

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While forming an interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. The following can be used of present perfect tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main Verb

Object

Have

you, we, they

played

football?

Has

He, she, it

played

football?

Have

you, we, they

Not

played

football?

Has

he, she, it

Not

played

football?

Has/Have + Subject + Verb (participle) + Object (positive statement)

Has/Have + Subject + no, not, never + Verb (participle) + Object (negative statement)

Generally, past perfect tense is used to describe activities that started in past and just finished. Following are few situations where the present perfect tense is used.

Description of the situation

Present Perfect Tense is used to describe any sort of experience.

  • They have realized that it was their mistake.
  • They have done a wonderful job.
  • He has scored excellently in his boards.
  • I have not done my homework.

Changes occurred

If you are using the present perfect tense, it may sometimes denote to the changes that have happened over the time with the object or with the subject.

  • The view of the city has developed over time.
  • His behavior has changed over these years.
  • She has motivated herself a lot.
  • They have guided the outlook of people.

Expressing Achievements

Any type of success or achievements can be expressed with the help of the present perfect tense.

  • I have passed the boards with flying colors.
  • They have won the match with no difficulty.
  • He has outspoken his brother.
  • She has achieved a great success in her life.

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