Best Practices in Business Writing

Our last blog, “Organization in Writing” was very well received. Thanks for your responses. In this blog we hope to explain few things about the writing process itself.

Writing process consists of four main stages as follows

  1. Data collection
  2. Pre-writing
  3. Writing
  4. Editing

Data collection

In this age of Information, data is single most valued commodity. We are always exposed to information. However, collecting, storing and using right information at appropriate stages is the key to effective writing. In this stage, you focus entirely on data collection, which you may find useful later. Hence, you are constantly in this stage, keeping your eyes and ears open for information on interesting topics. Following can be very effective sources:

  1. Books
  2. News
  3. Blogs
  4. Social Media
  5. Radio
  6. Discussions/ Meetings
  7. Interviews

Pre-writing

Pre-writing stage comes as and when you decide to pen down your thoughts on paper. It starts with brainstorming on the topic. Brainstorming is a quick way to generate a lot of ideas on a subject. The purpose is to make a list of as many ideas as possible without worrying about how you will use them. Your brainstorming diagram may include words, phrases, sentences or even questions.

To brainstorm, follow these steps:

  1. Begin by writing a topic in a rectangular box.
  2. Write down as many ideas about the topic as you can in 5 minutes.
  3. Add more items to your list by answering the questions what, how, when, where, why and who.
  4. Group similar ideas.
  5. Understand relations like cause-effect, consequences, lists, examples, advantages / disadvantages etc. between the ideas and mark them.
  6. Think of relevant examples especially if you are writing an essay.
  7. Check for relevancy with audience, subject boundaries and occasion.

bUSINESS WritngAbove image shows brainstorming diagram.

Writing

Outcome of previous activity acts as guideline at this stage. From childhood, an idea of havinga great start to the essay is imbibed in your mind. Let us tell you good news; it is alright to have an average start. Focus on the writing all considered points first. During editing stage you may revise your introduction. We will discuss “Parts of writing” in next week.

Write relentlessly without stopping. Frequent checking and stopping in between for corrections, breaks the flow. Also, if you stop in between, your mind might be diverted to related issues. You lose focus, which in turn results in loss of concentration. Repeated interruptions make you blind to your own mistakes, which lead to erroneous writing and ultimately frustration.

While writing, guidelines given in our previous blog “Organization in writing” can be very useful. You may also choose to use following guidelines,

  1. Start writing relentlessly.
  2. Do not waste time correcting yourself at this stage. You have next stage to correct yourself.
  3. Remember to use following orders while writing to sound more logical
  4. Order of Organization by Grouping
  5. Organization by Time
  6. Organization by Order of Importance
  7. Organization by Space

Editing

At the end of previous stage you have yourself, few ideas jotted down on your computer screen. Now, start proof-reading your written piece.

  1. While reading, look for logical sense. Ask yourself,
    1. Did I cover all points?
    2. Did I write them in logical fashion?
    3. Did I use appropriate order?
  2. Next, look for clarity of concepts. Many people like to believe that the more complex they write, better they sound. Please make sure one sentence is used for one idea. Don’t write sentences having multiple ideas. They only confuse your readers.
  3. Once this part is taken care of, we advise you to look for grammatical mistakes and correct them. Check for consistency of tenses, dates, persons and subject-verb confirmation.

We hope this blog helps to organize your writing better. These tips are valid for Business Writing, GRE, IELTS and TOEFL. You may visit us here, to know more about Business English course.

Organization in Writing

Writing is a type of communication, usually with standard structure and style. It addresses the needs of audiences and has prose and lists for a particular area that concerns business. Writing is very important in all phases of one’s life, as it creates an image of writer in the reader’s mind. A person with excellent writing skills unknowingly earns respect of his peers and looked upon as a sincere employee by the seniors. Now many may complain that writing is a tedious task. Yes writing is difficult, but good news is that it can be learnt and practiced.

Through series of blogs, we are going to take a short course in written communication.

One of the most important parts of writing is organization of the ideas. Proper organization of the ideas help, people paint a mental picture of written communication. It helps in understanding and eventually evaluating an idea. Ideas can be organized based on many criteria. Following are few important ones

  1. Organization by Grouping
  2. Organization by Time
  3. Organization by Order of Importance
  4. Organization by Space

Organization by Grouping

Ideas in writing can be organized by grouping them in relevant groups. Such grouping helps reader paint a mental picture of what is being described about. Clearer the list of groups, better is the mental picture. For instance, while describing countries, reader would be disturbed to see any cities mentioned in same line. To explain the point further, look at following paragraph.

For example

It is interesting to visit foreign countries. You can meet new people. You can eat different kinds of food. It is expensive. You can see the way other people live.

In the above paragraph, all ideas are relevant with main idea, ‘It is interesting to visit foreign countries’ except the idea that ‘It is expensive’ which in fact is a counterpoint of the main idea.

Organization by Time

Time sequence or chronology explains an important role in writing or reporting events. It gives a factual account of incidents in a way which can be easily understood and examined.

For example

I had a terrible Sunday. First I woke up an hour late because my alarm clock in mobile failed as mobile was discharged. Then, I was in such a hurry that I burned my hand when I was making breakfast. After breakfast, I rushed for the Soccer practice. I really feel that everyone should play soccer in life. As I reached the bus stop, I realized, I had forgotten my wallet at my desk. I literally sprinted back home and collected the wallet. I had to wait for 20 minutes as bus frequency on Sunday is comparatively rare. By the time I reached the ground, my friends were almost half way through the practice. My coach was angry. After practice, on my way back, I first went to supermarket to buy groceries and then to laundry to pick up my clothes.

As can be seen while, reading above paragraph, the sentence, ‘I really feel that everyone should play soccer in life’ distracts the attention. Other sentences build a nice account of unfortunate Sunday of the author.

Signal Words

First

Second

Then

Next

Before

After

As

Later

finally

Organization by order of importance

It is very important to recognize order of importance while discussing events, logical ideas, consequence, lists etc. This arrangement allows reader to rate the important points at start.

For example

There are many ways to learn a new language. The best way is to talk with native speakers. One way is to spend a lot of time watching television and listening to the radio. Another way is to take classes at a language school or university.

As can be seen, if ways of learning languages are arranged in order of importance, it is very easy to recognize best practices to learn a new language.

Signal Words

First of all

Second

For one thing

The next + noun

Also

In addition

Another + noun

Moreover

Most important + noun

Organization by Space

When you describe space, you use space order to explain where things are located. The easiest way to do this is to choose starting point. Then you describe where things are located with respect to previously described thing.

For example

My bedroom is a special place. Like most rooms, it is a rectangle. When you walk in the door, the first thing you notice is the large window on the back wall. It has a beautiful view of the garden.

Signal Words

On

Besides

In front of

In corner

Above

Next to

Both sides

Left hand

Below

We hope this blog helps to organize your writing better. These tips are valid for Business Writing, GRE, IELTS and TOEFL. You may visit us here, to know more about Business English course.

Know the Nouns

Most of the readers shall describe noun as “a place, a person or a thing”. This is not a complete explanation of NOUN. A noun is not necessarily always a physical substance; it can be of any intangible form as well. For example: Feeling of happiness or the artistic beauty of a painting.

Nouns have various categories, they are:

  1. Count Nouns
  2. Uncounted Nouns
  3. Proper Nouns
  4. Common Nouns
  5. Collective Nouns
  6. Concrete Nouns
  7. Abstract Nouns

COUNT NOUNS

Count nouns are the types of nouns that express the place, person or thing either in a singular or more than a singular expression.

Count nouns have two forms:

Singular

Plural

Singular Nouns

Singular nouns are the types of nouns that express the singularity or being the 1 of any one place, any one person, or any one thing

Plural Nouns

Plural Nouns are the types of nouns that express the plurality or being more than one of any more than one place, any more than one person, or more than one thing.

For Example

A valley (it expresses a single place), a tree (it expresses a single thing), a

player (it expresses a single person)

For Example

A number of valleys (it expresses more than one place), a forest of trees (it expresses more than one trees)

Few rules of plural nouns are listed below:

  1. We usually add –s to make a plural noun:

For example – boy-s, girl-s, toy-s, tree-s etc.

  1. We add -es to nouns ending in –ss; -ch; -s; -sh; -x

For example- grass-es, church-es, gas-es, fish-es, ox-es etc.

  1. When a noun ends in a consonant and -y we make the plural in –ies

For example- baby=babies, fairy=fairies, cherry=cherries

  1. When a noun ends in a vowel and -y we simply add -s:

For example- momo=momos, eye=eyes, apple=apples

  1. Some nouns have uncertain plurals.

For example- mouse=mice, Goose=Geese

UNCOUNTED NOUNS-

We do not use uncounted nouns in the plural. Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot “count” them. For example, we cannot count “milk”. We can count “bottles of milk” or “liters of milk”, but we cannot count “milk” itself.

For example – We drank a lot of coffee

For example – That’s useful advice

Uncounted nouns often refer to:

SubstancesIron, table, chair, biscuit
Human feelings or qualitiesAnxiety, sadness, merry, happy
ActivitiesRun, sleep, talk, sneeze
Abstract ideas:Life, urge, death

Here are few examples of countable and uncountable nouns.

COUNTABLEUNCOUNTABLE
TableFurniture
PoemsRhythm
TreesForest
FactoryIndustry
DewRainfall

PROPER NOUNS –

A PROPER NOUN is a noun which usually refers to a singular or collection of entities. Some proper nouns occur in plural form, and then they refer to groups of entities considered as unique. Names of people, place and person are known as Proper Noun. We generally start the proper nouns with CAPITAL letters.

William Shakespeare, Richard, Pune etc

Proper nouns are not normally preceded by an article or other limiting modifier, as any or some. Nor are they usually pluralized. But the language allows for exceptions

COMMON NOUNS

According to Oxford – Common nouns are the nouns that can be preceded by an indefinite article and denotes any or all member of the class.

Let me simplify it to you.

Common nouns are the types of nouns which do not specify a person or any place or anything in particular but refers to it as in general aspect like for example, dog, city, humans etc. these are the common nouns.

COLLECTIVE NOUNS

According to Oxford – A noun, though singular refers to a group of things, or animals.

I hope that this definition is pretty simple

Now I would give you a list of collective nouns.

An army of soldiers

A herd of sheep

A dozen of Eggs

A pack of wolves

A bunch of sticks

A crowd of people

A club of lions

A group of dancers.

A team of players

CONCRETE NOUNS

Concrete nouns are those types of nouns which denote something tangible or material, such as a person or a place.

For Example – Machine, Tree, Jack etc

Pretty Simple ha? That’s what we do. We make it simpler for you to understand.

ABSTRACT NOUN

Abstract Nouns are the type of nouns which does not have a physical form that cannot be touched; it is a noun that denotes an idea, an emotion, feeling, quality or other abstract or intangible concepts.

For Example-

Happiness

Sadness

Anger, etc.

Professions related to animals

If you love animals, enjoy working with them, but you aren’t sure what exactly you want to do with them…or what you can do with them? There are many ways in which you can combine your interest in animals with a paying job. There are broad range of jobs which we discuss over here.

REQUIREMENTS

Students passed 10+2 from science background are only eligible to pursue further studies in veterinary surgeon. The student must have the basic science combination i.e. physics, biology, chemistry which is rather called as Bio-Science.

THE WORK

Veterinary

Some veterinary practices deal mainly or exclusively (except in cases of emergency) with small or ‘companion’ animals; others deals with farm animals or horses; some are mixed practices, but even here veterinary surgeons are likely to develop particular areas of interest and expertise.

Veterinary Surgeons must provide 24 hours service, but most practices are organized so as to provide reasonable time off and holidays. Veterinary surgeons treat animals both in their surgeries and at their owner’s premises.

It is important for them to be able to communicate effectively with animal’s owner. This means a different approach for pet owners, who have an emotional attachment to their companion animals and for farmers to whom their animals are an investment.

While committed to the welfare of an animal, their veterinary surgeon must allow a farmer to balance an expensive new treatment against an economic return. In farm animal practice, veterinary surgeons are concerned not just with treating individual animals but with advertising on the well-being and productivity of their entire stock.

District councils need veterinary surgeons to inspect the riding establishments, zoos, pet shops and dog breeding and boarding kennels which they license.

Newly qualified veterinary surgeons normally start as assistants in established practices, moving on to a more senior assistant-ship.

Farm practitioners may be local Veterinary inspectors for the department for environment. They handle food and rural Affairs, testing cattle for tuberculosis or brucellosis or carrying on inspection at cattle markets. Some practices carry out supervision of meat hygiene in abattoirs or poultry slaughter houses; others work at their licensed grey hound tracks.

Veterinary Council of India is concerned not with individual animals but with the ‘common herd’. Its responsibilities include; the control and eradication of notifiable disease; diagonistic and consultancy work on notifiable and non-notifiable disease; epidemiological studies. It also includes disease monitoring and surveillance; special investigations and surveys; public health liaison and human diseases related to animals.

Veterinary Nurse

Veterinary Nurses assist veterinary surgeons in their surgery and occasional on visits. They hold and pacify animals during examination and treatment; in the surgery they also sterilize and look after instruments. They collect and analyze specimens, prepare medicines, take out strings and stitches, clean out cages and clear up after operations.

They may also assist in the reception of patients.

They work mainly in ‘small animal’ practices, i.e. those dealing with domestic animals, and for the RSPCA and other animal welfare and research organizations. The hours are usually long and irregular. Animals have to be cared for at weekends, which may mean going to work on Saturday and Sunday, perhaps just to feed them.

Horse Care-takers

Looking after horses nearly always means hard physical work that has to be carried out daily in all weathers. Hours tend to be long especially in summer and most people work a 6-day week. Most new entrants have had experience of working as unpaid helpers or have their own pony/horse while at school, so they know what is involved.

Staff may live in or out, but grooms and stable managers usually live on the premises because of the early-morning start.

Instructors

They teach children and adults, both in private lessons and in classes, and accompany riders out on ‘hacks’. Classes may be held early in the morning or late in the evening, to suit pupils coming before or after work. Some instructors work for one establishment full time; others work freelance or part time.

Dog training is a tremendously rewarding career. One should remember first of all that, for the most part, training is a “service” profession and that one is usually working with people who happen to have dogs. In other words, you are working with animals but you are primarily working with people.

There could be many private Institutions giving instructions for this profession.

ASSOCIATED INSTITUTIONS.

  1. Centre for advanced studies in pathology ,Kerala Agricultural University.
  2. Shri lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha ,New Delhi.
  3. Bihar Veterinary College ,Patna.
  4. All India Institute of Hygiene and public health ,Kolkata ,West Bengal.
  5. Department of agriculture Research and Education ,Central Agriculture University , Imphal , Manipur.
  6. College of animal sciences ,CCS Haryana Agriculture University ,Hisar ,Haryana.
  7. Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics , Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science university ,Ludhiana ,Punjab.
  8. Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding ,West Bengal university of Animal and Fishery Science.
  9. Department of Animal Nutrition ,chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University , Palampur.
  10. Department of animal Nutrition Navasari Agricultural University, Gujrat.

(There are many others in India)

PAYSCALE

At an average the pay scale for Veterinary professional, who is working in the same field for 1-4 YEARS INR 4.7 Lakhs per annum is the salary. Many choose to work as a Consultant and hence income may vary a lot depending individual skills.

Architecture as career

Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.

REQUIREMENTS

  1. 10+2 with a minimum passing percentage from any stream with mathematics as a compulsory subject
  2. Qualification in corresponding Architectural Entrance Exams
    1. National Aptitude test for Architecture (NATA)
    2. Joint Entrance Exam (JEE – Paper 2)
    3. Maharashtra Common Entrance test (MAH-AR-CAT)

THE WORK

Architecture is a multi discipline profession requiring a combination of artistic, technological and sociological expertise. The challenge of architecture is to produce, within a given budget, an aesthetically pleasing design which will stand up to wear and tear and is the kind of building in which people will want to live or work.

Architects must fully understand traditional and new building methods and material and appreciate their potential and limitations. They must also understand and be interested in contemporary society and changing lifestyles, the community’s expectations and needs and social problems which may lead to loneliness, mugging and vandalism. They need to question householders, office workers, teachers, hospital staff, managers, and social workers etc to come up with a design for a building that is ‘user’ friendly. This, together with strict financial constraints, makes architecture today a more demanding discipline than it has ever been.

Typical tasks range from converting houses into flats to designing hospitals, retirement homes or factory. Architects receive instructions from their clients or employers on the type, function, capacity, and rough cost of the building required. Then they do their research – and at that stage they may question some assumptions on which the client based the brief. When the type of the building has finally been decided upon, the design work begins. This starts with producing, perhaps jointly with colleagues, a sketch scheme of the floor plans, the elevations, and perspective drawings. Several designs must be produced before one is finally approved.

The next stage is to prepare contract documents which will include detailed drawings and specifications; estimates of cost; and applications for necessary planning consent from the local authority. At this stage especially if the scheme is a big one, consulting engineers and quality surveyors may be appointed.

When the contract for the work has been awarded to a building contactors, and for inspecting the work in progress, architects are responsible for overall monitoring of the site. This involves regular visits to the building site, issuing instructions to the contractor’s agent or foreman and discussing any problem that might arise.

The architect is also normally responsible for the choice or design of fittings and the interior design of the buildings. Work of Architects in commercial concern is confined to that organization’s particular type of building e.g. hotels and restaurants for a large catering organization; shops for a retail chain.

Following can be top careers:

  • Urban Design & Planning
  • Theatre & Exhibition Design
  • Environmental Architecture
  • Landscape & Interior Design
  • Set Design -Film

ASSOCIATED INSTITUTIONS (Top)

  • SCHOOL OF PLANNNING AND ARCHITECTURE, Indraprastha , New Delhi.
  • CHANDIGARH COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE, Chandigarh.
  • SIR , J.J, COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE , D.N. Road Mumbai.
  • BENGAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE, Shibpur , Howrah.
  • JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY, Jadavpur , Kolkata.
  • TVB SCHOOL OF HABITAT STUDIES, Vasant Kunj , New Delhi.
  • IIT KHARAGPUR, Kharagpur.
  • IIT ROORKEE, Roorkee.
  • CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING AND TECHNOLGY , Ahmedabad.
  • RAI UNIVERSITY RAIPUR , New Delhi

PAYSCALE*

A Design Architect earns an average salary of INR 3.8 per year. Experience strongly influences pay for this job. The highest paying skills associated with this job are Autodesk 3ds Max and PowerPoint. Most people with this job move on to other positions after 20 years in this field.

*Figures are indicative. Do not use it for any decision.

If you want to know, how can we help you in choosing career visit here.

Career in Actuarial Sciences

An actuary is nothing but a business professional which basically deals with the measurement and management of risk and uncertainty .The name of the corresponding profession is called as actuarial science. The risks caused can affect both sides of the balance sheet and require asset management, liability management and valuation skills. Actuaries provide a proper assessment of financial security system.

REQUIREMENTS

Students who wish to pursue actuarial science must be more than 18 years. He / She should have completed any one of the following educational qualifications or standards as follows:-

  • Passed 10+2(H.S.C) or any equivalent with 85% in mathematics / statistics
  • Any Engineer / CA / CS / MBA (FINANCE) / MCA

Fully qualified members of following professional bodies such as:-

  • Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI)
  • Institute of Cost Accountants of India (ICWAI)
  • The Institute of Financial Analyst of India (IFAI)
  • The Insurance Institute of India (III), passing with subjects 81- Mathematical basis of insurance and 82-Statistics

THE WORK

The work of an Actuary is vast.

Actuaries use the theory of profitability and the theory of compound interest together. They use statistical techniques to highlight and solve financial problems. Actuaries suggest appropriate courses of action and to predict the financial implications of such actions. Their works has a strong mathematical bias and is essential desk-work performed in a variety of settings.

Some 50% of actuaries work for insurance and pension funds. They investigate on such matters as relative life expectancy of various groups in the population, and assessing the effects of life styles and characteristics on premiums and policies and investment. In other insurance branches- accident, fire, motor- actuaries assess risks and pin – point variables in the light of changing conditions and life styles and advise on reserves necessary to cover long term liabilities.

In government departments actuaries advise on public service pensions and insurance schemes. Though they are concerned with various aspects of people’s lives and welfare, actuaries do not usually have much contact with people outside their own office.

About 30% of actuaries work in consultancy. Much of their work involves advising clients, usually about pension funds. They also advise insurance companies too small to have their own actuarial department, or give specialist advice to large insurance companies. There are also openings on merchant banks, the stock exchange and other financial institutions, as well as some limited opportunities in industry and commerce. This is such a type of work which is totally a desk-work.

Actuaries solve complicated problems because it’s a work of a good mathematician. A student perusing Actuarial science should have a strong base of mathematics. It improves the ability to interpret and express in clear English results of mathematical and statistical analysis. They have to keep up with developments, especially relevant legislation and data processing application.

ASSOCIATED INSTITUTIONS

  • HARYANA ENGINEERING COLLEGE, Jagadhri (HARYANA).
  • CHRIST UNIVERSITY, Bangalore.
  • THANTHAI HANS ROEVER COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCE, Perambalur.
  • BS ABDUR RAHMAN UNIVERSITY, Chennai.
  • BISHOP HEBER COLLEGE, Trichinappalli.
  • INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF ACTURIAL SCIENCES (ISAS), Hyderabad.
  • INSTITUTE OF ACTUARIES OF INDIA, Mumbai.
  • DS ACTURIAL EDUCATION SERVICES (DS Act Ed), Mumbai.
  • AMITY SCHOOL OF INSURANCE AND ACTURIAL SCIENCE (ASIAS), Noida.
  • SHRI VILE PARLE KELAVANI MANDAL’S NARSEE MONJEE INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, Vile Parle, Maharashtra.

PAY-SCALE OF ACTUARIAL SCIENCE*

Payment scale of actuarial science is high. The basic salary varies from about INR 3 Lakhs to INR 9 Lakhs per annum; moreover the bonus that is received each year is around INR 2 Lakhs per annum.

*These are approximate figures from our survey and should not be used as benchmark in any scenario.

Advertising Career

The very basic definition of advertising is of promoting a group of items or any goods which will have an end result which will lead to selling of that good or services.

Advertising is done by a group or by an individual, they are called as advertisers. Many advertisers incorporate advertising into marketing. Among them (advertisers), brand managers are responsible for the marketing policy for a product, including its advertising. Relatively few have their own advertising departments, which vary in size. If manufacturer creates and places all the advertising directly, the department may be such like small agency.

There are various departments for advertising. For example, retailers’ advertisement departments may deal with store and window displays, exhibition, fashion shows, promotions, and public relations. The Advertising departments are useful grounds, giving experience in arrange of works.

REQUIREMENTS

The very Basic requirement that one must fulfill to become an advertiser is to pass 10+2 with minimum of 50% marks from H.S.C or any of its equivalent.

Other requirements that one must attain to become an Advertiser, are as follows:-

Graduation is mandatory under any UGC ranked and AICTE approved university in India.

MBA in marketing can give a competitive edge to the students in comparison to the students who are only graduates.

THE WORK-

It is commonly said that advertising is nothing but a technique of promotion or promoting some good or service. So it’s not only possible for advertisers to promote it as they want.

These are basically done through some of the mediums.  Here MEDIA becomes the best medium for promotion of goods and services. The advertising departments of media owners are responsible for selling space or air time to advertisers. This can be in both the ways. Direct or through agencies.

The research section provides information about readers or viewers. It helps advertisers to pin- point target groups.

The promotions section may have its own creative department, which works mainly in three areas. These three areas include projecting the medium to advertisers, to distributors and to retailers on behalf of advertisers.

Sales representatives are responsible for selling advertisement space or air time; this may include telephone selling, trying to get classified advertisements.

Media managers are responsible for ensuring that advertisements comply with the code of advertising practice. This may involve checking copy claims and possibly asking for changes to be made before accepting copy. Considerably more patience is required for doing this type of jobs.

Now days without advertising, business is impossible, and it becomes an important part for any company as well as for any goods and services to be sold.

In India there are huge job opportunities or job scopes for a good advertiser. This is because; the entire market depends upon marketing. In advertising, pre entry training is not essential but, it is very helpful. The larger agencies tend to run in-service training schemes, sometimes supplemented by external courses. The Institute of Practitioners in Advertising runs a phased program of training courses designed to cater for the training needs of executives employed at IPA member agencies at each stage of their career.

Some advertising agencies take several graduates each year.

Associated institutes for learning Advertising and Mass Media:

  • CRAFT: Centre for Research in Art of Film and Television, Delhi.
  • Advertising Club Care Centre, Chennai.
  • Centre of Image Management, Noida.
  • Empire institute of advertising and communication CSKM, New Delhi.
  • Guru Jambheshwar University, Haryana.
  • Indian Institute of Mass Communication, JNU, New Delhi.
  • Mudra Institute of Communications, Shela, Ahmadabad.
  • Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, Vile Parle (west) Mumbai.
  • Somaiya College of arts, Chow patty, Mumbai.
  • Sophia College, Bhulabhai Desai Road, Mumbai.

PAY SCALE

The Marketing Manager secures annual salary of about INR 6 Lakhs. In the hierarchy there is the senior marketing manager who holds a better designation and a better pay scale as well which can reach up to approximately INR 10 to 12 Lakhs. Communication is a key factor in marketing, thus the marketing communication manager plays an important role in running the marketing process without any hindrances and can expect a salary of around INR 8 Lakhs. The senior copywriter also gets a salary of around INR 5 Lakhs.

(Data is approximate and should not be taken as benchmark at on any level. It only holds an approximate introduction for the novices.)

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Accounting Career

INTRODUCTION

Accountancy is a subject which shows the ways to record business transactions for companies or any types of profit or non- profit organizations.

REQUIREMENTS

Students with a minimum eligibility i.e. passed class 11 and 12th standard with minimum passing criterion of being from commerce background can pursue accountancy for further studies.

THE WORK

There are vast types of job opportunities in all types of business and public enterprises. An accountancy qualified student has a good profile for preparation of jobs in merchant and other banking, insurance in the city.

Accountancy work can be broadly classified into 3 main categories. They are being described as follows:-

PUBLIC PRACTICE ACCOUNTANTS

These accountants work in firms of partners. They are consultants and employ a well qualified assistants, trainees, and technicians. Firms vary in size from one to several thousands. Also they vary in type from high powered international practices to small private clients and local small traders. Normally each accountant deals with particular clients’ affairs so that there is personal contact with individuals. So, communication skills become one of the most important skills for accountants.

As the financial scene becomes ever more complex, accountants now often specialize in one particular accountancy aspect. Audits may be done in streamlined offices using the latest technologies. Auditing is largely desk work, but it also involves discussions with clients – anyone from clerk to managing director- if specific items in the books are not clear.

Apart from auditing and making suggestions, about how to improve their systems and procedures accountants, also advice their clients on personal and business financial matter. They also guide on how to invest a small legacy to setting up a business or liquidating one. Large accountancy firms provide management consultancy services too.

Auditing is not only required for big companies or corporate, but also for small companies also who have a healthy business transactions. Opportunities are very high for students in accountancy, if they excel in this stream.

INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL ACCOUNTANTS

This is another type of accountants after public practice accountants. These types of accountants basically work for an employer on a salaried basis. They are being broadly divided into financial accountants, concerned largely with internal audits, taxation, wage and salary structure, financial record keeping; and management accountants.

Management accountants assess the relative importance, value and cost of all aspects of a business: labor, raw materials, transport sites, administration, marketing etc. They might for example, compare the relative cost of using a cheap new raw material or cost of moving a factory to a cheaper site considering increased transport cost, recruitment and training new staff.

Like management consultants, their work requires interviewing all the people whose work affects the efficiency of the organization concerned. By comparing it with the financial results of alternative courses of action, management accountants present the information to the decision makers at the top of the organization. As we know, management accountants take part in decision making and business control, they need a boarder understanding of business organization in general.

These accountants therefore often move to consultancy sections of auditing firms, or into management consultancy.

PUBLIC SECTOR ACCOUNTANTS

These are another type of accountants and probably the last type which we have studied before

These are accountants and auditors working in local and central government, the health service, national audit and other public service bodies. They are concerned with all aspects of financial management. The emphasis of their work is basically on the efficient and effective use of funds and the need of their public accountability.

Involvement in the management of change, e.g. Contracting out of services and advising on alternative opinions for the use of limited funds are important aspects of finance manager’s job.

They work in the national audit bodies involves auditing public income and expenditure. They also certify the accounts and carrying out value for money studies. Companies providing services to the public sector increasingly seek to recruit public service accountants and auditors.

Significant numbers of finance managers become top level General Managers.

ASSOCIATED INSTITUTIONS FOR STUDING ACCOUNTANCY IN INDIA

Top 10 colleges which hold the studies of accountancy in India are as follows:

  1. SHREE RAM COLLEGE OF COMMERCE, Delhi
  2. LADY SHREE RAM COLLEGE OF COMMERCE, Delhi
  3. LOYALA COLLEGE OF COMMERCE, Delhi
  4. CHRIST COLLEGE , Bangalore
  5. XAVIERS COLLEGE OF COMMERCE , Mumbai
  6. SYMBIOSIS COLLEGE OF ARTS SCIENCE AND COMMERCE , Pune
  7. JOSEPH COLLEGE OF COMMERCE , Delhi
  8. HANS RAJ COLLEGE , Delhi
  9. MADRAS CHRISTIAN COLLEGE, Chennai.
  10. ANIL SURENDRA MODI SCHOOL OF COMMERCE, Mumbai.

PAY SCALE:

An Accountant starts at an average salary of INR 2 Lakhs per year. Most people move on to other jobs if they have more than 20 years’ experience in this field. The highest paying skills associated with this job are accountant, Cost accounting, Tax compliances, and general ledger accounting.

In case you are unsure about your skills as an accountant, we can help you with our career counseling. Our experts are currently working in Industry who can guide you in this field.

Reader’s suggestions are always welcome.

Methods to improve Business English

Most of people in India have developed a notion that only few people are destined to have good Communications Skills. They feel English Proficiency is even rare. Many technical people ignore both by assigning higher priority to the projects only to find out few years later that, it is equally important to communicate your ideas, achievements and objections with equal skill. We are here to help you with few compelling ideas that we have developed over last 25 years’ experience in training.

Listening

You may ask why listening? We believe, what you hear is what you think and what you think is what you speak.

How did you learn your mother tongue? Did your mother gift a Grammar book on your first birthday? An infant listens and in his attempt to copy parents, it learns to speak eventually. Look at a toddler and his amazing capability of learning a language. Why can’t you? Our advice is, listen quality English as much as possible. Tune into English News. Listen to the English Commentary. Watch English movies (maybe with subtitles). We are sure if you surround yourself with English, there is no reason you won’t learn it.

One – way communication

As the name of the technique suggests, once you become familiar with English through listening, start speaking in front of a mirror as if you are speaking to audience. Speaking aloud in front of mirror will give you confidence. It will also help you find your rhythm. Set a target of expressing your thoughts, ideas, concerns, opinions within 15 – 20 sentences. This is typically useful in daily meetings where you find yourself tongue-tied.

Two-way communication

Once you gain confidence to express your thoughts and ideas, find a communication-buddy in office or home. Your buddy must be better communicator than you are. If you can’t find one, go to internet and join few groups on social network. As you start speaking with the buddy on different topics, many questions will start creeping into your mind. Be patient, use internet resources to work on difficulties.

Within few weeks, you will gain confidence to speak to people. They may ask you questions on the opinion you expressed or after listening to someone you may have some questions to ask. Work with determination to overcome this phase. If you can survive through this phase, rewards are enormous.

Grammar

Once you have achieved satisfactory proficiency in Communication, at least with your colleagues, you can concentrate on grammar. This will help you rectify your mistakes faster. Remember you learnt grammar of your mother tongue in fifth grade when you could already construct a sentence without any difficulty. At this juncture, you most probably be in same place, as far as English Proficiency is concerned.

Telephone conversation

Once you are comfortable with one-on-one conversations, it is time to take up new challenges. How many times have you felt that, your call would have been better? Why this happens? Reason is simple, 65% of human communication is through Body Language. Try to learn systematically how to make a successful call for reporting progress or reviewing meetings. You can use role-play with colleagues or the buddy to improve your telephone conversations.

Accent Reduction

Once you master the art of communication with people, it’s time to work on accent. It happens many times, especially while dealing with foreign delegates, that some may find your accent difficult to comprehend. Don’t worry. Initially try to imitate your favorite actor from the movies. Notice the change in pronunciations. Work with the phonetic dictionary. Within few days, your conversations with overseas client will definitely improve as you can understand his accent better and vice a versa.

We hope these inputs will help you improve your communication skills. If you are thinking it is not possible to find buddy or have practical problems like lack of focus or time, you can join our courses on Business English in Pune. We have designed our courses over last 25 years specifically for professionals. Apart from above skills, we also work on following components:

Presentation Skills

You will learn secrets of Presentations here. How many times have you or somebody else slept in the presentation? We not only teach you about the delivery of the presentation but about how to create an effective presentation? You will learn strategies to talk in front of a CEO, your manager or even your juniors.

Handling Meetings

Do you have bright ideas? Can you express them in meetings? We teach you here how to take a stand in a meeting? How to take objections? How to appreciate others? Also you will learn about dinning etiquettes in Corporate.

Right now we have intensive class-room program of 45 hours. If interested please let us know here.

English Grammar: Future Perfect Continuous Tense

During our English speaking courses, many people question the importance of grammar in spoken English, while some fervently support it. I guess this question can be reserved for other times. Today we are going to take a look at Future perfect continuous tense and its applications in spoken English.

The Future perfect continuous expresses that the action shall start sometime in the future and shall continue in the future

Verb

In future perfect continuous tense the verb is generally used in its present participle form and it is supported by the auxiliary verb, “will have been”

Make a statement

A statement in Future perfect continuous tense is constructed in following ways.

Subject

Auxiliary Verb

Main Verb

Object

I, You, We, They

will have been

roasting

chicken

He, She, It

will have been

roasting

chicken

I, You , We, They

will

not have been

roasting

chicken

He, She, It

will

not have been

roasting

chicken

Structure for constructing statement in general can be:

Subject + will + have been+ Verb (present participle) + Object (positive statement)

Subject + will + no, not, never + have been + Verb (present participle) + Object (negative statement)

Ask a question

While forming interrogative sentence, auxiliary verb precedes subject in general. Following can be use of Future perfect continuous tense in interrogative sentences.

Auxiliary Verb

Subject

Main Verb

Object

Will

you, we, they

have been

roasting

chicken?

Will

he, she, it

have been

roasting

chicken?

Will

you, we, they

not have been

roasting

chicken?

Will

he, she, it

not have been

roasting

chicken?

Will + subject + have been+ Verb (present participle) + Object (positive statement)

Will + subject + no, not, never + have been + Verb (present participle) + Object (negative statement)

Now there are few situations where the Future perfect continuous tense is used.

Duration of future happenings

Future perfect continuous tense tells us about the duration of any activity that happens in future

  • They will have been waiting for an hour before jack arrives.
  • Will you have been working when you will work with them?
  • Will you have been planning of staying here before your flat gets ready?

Cause of something that shall happen in future

It shows cause and effect relation of an activity.

  • He will have been working to make his family happy.
  • He will be soaked in sweat because he will have been walking back home.
  • He will have been drinking due to his loss.